TUESDAY, June 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring is increased in association with type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed by 26 weeks' gestation, according to a research letter published online June 23 in the Journal of the American Medical Association to coincide with the annual meeting of the American Diabetes Association, held from June 22 to 26 in Orlando, Florida.
Anny H. Xiang, Ph.D., from Kaiser Permanente Southern California in Pasadena, and colleagues conducted a retrospective cohort study including 419,425 singleton children born at 28 to 44 weeks' gestation. Children were tracked from age 1 year to examine the risk of ASD in offspring associated with maternal T1D, T2D, and GDM.
The researchers found that per 1,000 children, the unadjusted average annual ASD incidence rates were 4.4, 3.6, 2.9, 2.1, and 1.8 for exposure to T1D, T2D, GDM by 26 weeks' and after 26 weeks' gestation, and no diabetes, respectively. Relative to no diabetes exposure, the adjusted hazard ratios for exposure to maternal diabetes were 2.36 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.36 to 4.12), 1.45 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.24 to 1.7), 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.12 to 1.51), and 0.99 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.12) for T1D, T2D, and GDM by 26 weeks' and after 26 weeks' gestation, respectively.
"These results add new information on T1D and extend previous findings for preexisting T2D and GDM," the authors write.