April 2019 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for April 2019. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

CDC: 704 Measles Cases Reported in U.S. Through April 26, 2019

TUESDAY, April 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A total of 704 cases of measles were reported in the United States from Jan. 1 to April 26, 2019, representing the largest number of cases since 1994, according to research published in the April 29 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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EHR Decision Support Can Reduce Inappropriate GI Testing

MONDAY, April 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Electronic health record (EHR) decision support reduces inappropriate use of an expensive gastrointestinal test for patients hospitalized with diarrhea, according to a study published online April 23 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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CDC: First Confirmed ID of 'Kissing Bug' in Delaware

FRIDAY, April 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The first confirmed identification of the bloodsucking "kissing bug" in Delaware involves one that bit a girl on the face last summer, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says.

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Hundreds Quarantined for Measles at Two Los Angeles Universities

FRIDAY, April 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Quarantine orders have been issued to more than 200 students and employees at the University of California, Los Angeles, and California State-Los Angeles because they may have been exposed to measles.

The New York Times Article
UCLA Statement

U.K. Study IDs Risk Factors Tied to Knee Replacement Revision

FRIDAY, April 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A new study published online April 17 in Lancet Infectious Diseases identifies risk factors associated with revision for prosthetic joint infection following knee replacement.

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Gender Differences Seen in Adverse Drug Reactions

FRIDAY, April 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The risk for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may be higher for women, even when accounting for gender differences in drug use, according to a study published online April 2 in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

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CDC: Number of U.S. Measles Cases Reaches New High

THURSDAY, April 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The number of reported measles cases this year has reached 695, the highest number of reported cases since measles was declared eliminated in the United States in 2000, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced yesterday.

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New York City Measles Cases Increase to 390

WEDNESDAY, April 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The number of measles cases in New York City has risen to 390, the health department said Wednesday.

New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
More Information: CDC

Risk Factors ID'd for Rheumatoid Arthritis Complications

WEDNESDAY, April 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A new study published online April 11 in the International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases identifies factors tied to hospitalization and infections among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

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USPSTF Urges Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Screen in Pregnancy

TUESDAY, April 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) but not nonpregnant women or men. These recommendations form the basis of a draft recommendation statement published online April 23 by the USPSTF.

Evidence Review
Draft Recommendation Statement
Comment on Recommendation Statement

Los Angeles County Measles Outbreak Under Investigation

TUESDAY, April 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A measles outbreak is being investigated by the Los Angeles County Department of Health.

The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health
More Information: CDC

Malawi First Country to Immunize Children Against Malaria

TUESDAY, April 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Malawi has become the first country to start immunizing children against malaria, the World Health Organization says.

AP News Article

CDC: United States Set to Break Measles Cases Record

MONDAY, April 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Just a few months into the year, the United States is set to break an annual record for the number of measles cases.

More Information: CDC
NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

Injection Timing Tied to Risk for Infection in Rotator Cuff Repair

MONDAY, April 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, corticosteroid injections within the previous month are associated with an increased risk for surgical site infection, according to a study published in the April 17 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

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National Hand Hygiene Initiative Successful in Australia

FRIDAY, April 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The National Hand Hygiene Initiative (NHHI) has successfully sustained improvement in hand hygiene compliance, according to a study recently published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases and presented at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, held from April 13 to 16 in Amsterdam.

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Naltrexone Implant Helps HIV Patients Prevent Opioid Relapse

FRIDAY, April 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Slow-release implantable naltrexone is associated with better outcomes than the oral drug for HIV-positive patients with an opioid addiction, according to a study published in the April issue of The Lancet HIV.

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Loan Forgiveness, Educational Debt May Affect Practice Patterns

FRIDAY, April 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Increased educational debt appears to directly influence physician practice choice, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.

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Sixty People Charged in Massive Opioid Painkiller Investigation

THURSDAY, April 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Fifty-three medical professionals, including 31 doctors, are among the 60 people charged by U.S. authorities for their alleged involvement in the illegal prescribing and distribution of opioid painkillers.

AP News Article

UB-421 Monotherapy Maintains HIV Viral Suppression

THURSDAY, April 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Monotherapy with UB-421 antibody, which blocks the HIV virus-binding site on human CD4+ T-cells, maintains viral suppression for up to 16 weeks in HIV-infected persons undergoing analytic treatment interruption, according to a study published in the April 18 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Infections May Up Risk for Developing Sjögren Syndrome

THURSDAY, April 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with a history of infection have double the risk for developing Sjögren syndrome, according to a study published online March 20 in the Journal of Internal Medicine.

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CDC: Raw Tuna Linked to Salmonella Outbreak in Seven States

WEDNESDAY, April 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A Salmonella outbreak linked to frozen, raw ground tuna from Jensen Tuna has sickened 13 people in seven states, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says. The illnesses began between Jan. 8 and March 20 of this year. Two people have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported.

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Parenteral Antimicrobial Tx at Home Burdens Children's Caregivers

WEDNESDAY, April 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The overall burden of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is substantially higher than that of oral therapy for caregivers of children on prolonged antimicrobial therapy after hospital discharge, according to a study published in the April issue of Hospital Pediatrics.

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Standardizing Demographics Ups Accuracy of Patient Matching

MONDAY, April 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Standardizing demographic data can improve the accuracy of patient matching, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.

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WHO: Congo Ebola Outbreak Still Not a Global Emergency

MONDAY, April 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The ongoing Ebola outbreak in Congo is of "deep concern" but does not yet qualify as a global emergency, the World Health Organization says.

AP News Article

CDC: 555 Confirmed Measles Cases in U.S. Since Jan. 1

MONDAY, April 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The 555 confirmed cases of measles reported in 20 states between Jan. 1 and April 11 this year represent the second highest number of measles cases reported in the United States since measles was eliminated in the nation in 2000, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says.

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New Scale Helps Identify More Serious Cases of Mononucleosis

MONDAY, April 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A new scale for rating the severity of mononucleosis can identify patients at risk for more serious cases, including those who might develop chronic fatigue syndrome following infectious mononucleosis, according to a study recently published in The Journal of Pediatrics.

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AEDs Tied to Higher Pneumonia Risk in Alzheimer Patients

MONDAY, April 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Antiepileptic drug (AED) use may increase the risk for pneumonia in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), according to a study recently published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.

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Prevalence of Extragenital STDs High in Men Who Have Sex With Men

FRIDAY, April 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Extragenital (rectal and pharyngeal) chlamydia and gonorrhea are prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), according to research published in the April 12 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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CDC: Superbug Fungus Has Sickened 600 Americans

THURSDAY, April 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The United States has had more than 600 cases of infection with a type of fungus called a "serious global health threat" by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

ABC News Article
More Information: CDC

SSI Risk Up After C-Section for Medicaid Beneficiaries

THURSDAY, April 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The risk for surgical site infection (SSI) after cesarean delivery is increased for women covered by Medicaid versus private health insurance, according to a study published online April 9 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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Cytomegalovirus Linked to Faster Progression of Cystic Fibrosis

THURSDAY, April 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with faster disease progression, according to a research letter published online April 7 in the European Respiratory Journal.

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Domestic Responsibilities Tied to Physician Mothers' Satisfaction

THURSDAY, April 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For physician mothers in procedural specialties, being responsible for five or more domestic tasks is associated with an increased likelihood of career dissatisfaction, according to a study published online April 10 in JAMA Surgery.

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CDC: Still No Source As E. Coli Outbreak Grows to 96 Cases

WEDNESDAY, April 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. health officials say an outbreak of Escherichia coli illness from an unknown source has risen to 96 cases across five Eastern states, up from the 72 cases reported last Friday.

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STI Incidence Up After Receipt of HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis

WEDNESDAY, April 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For gay and bisexual men, receipt of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is associated with an increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs), according to a study published in the April 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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CDC: Measles Cases Reach 465 This Year in the United States

TUESDAY, April 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The number of reported measles cases in the United States hit 465 as of April 4, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Monday. That is 78 more than in the previous week's update, CNN reported.

CNN Article
The New York Times Article
More Information: CDC

High Response Seen for All Hep C Tx Models in Injection Drug Users

TUESDAY, April 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For people with hepatitis C virus (HCV) who inject drugs (PWID) and receive opioid agonist therapy (OAT), receipt of HCV treatment is associated with high sustained virologic response (SVR), according to a study published online April 9 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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New, Revised Topics Released in ACR Appropriateness Criteria

TUESDAY, April 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The latest edition of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria has been released and includes 188 diagnostic imaging and interventional radiology topics, with 908 clinical variants covering more than 1,670 clinical scenarios.

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First Two-Drug Regimen Approved for HIV-1 Treatment

MONDAY, April 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced the approval of Dovato (dolutegravir and lamivudine), the first approved two-drug, fixed-dose, complete regimen for adults with HIV-1 who have not been previously treated with antiretroviral medication.

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Telemedicine Leads to More Antibiotic Rx for Pediatric Respiratory Infection

MONDAY, April 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs), antibiotic prescribing is higher and guideline-concordant antibiotic management is lower with direct-to-consumer (DTC) telemedicine visits compared with other settings, according to a study published online April 8 in Pediatrics.

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Model Can Predict Sepsis Risk for Emergency Medical Admissions

MONDAY, April 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A computer-aided National Early Warning Score (cNEWS) model accurately predicts sepsis for emergency medical admissions, according to a study published online April 8 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Alcohol, Drug Misuse Tied to Long-Term Health Problems

MONDAY, April 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- More than one-third of U.S. adults in recovery for alcohol and other drug (AOD) use have health problems related to previous substance use, according to a study published online March 16 in the Journal of Addiction Medicine.

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CDC: TB Incidence Declined Slightly in United States in 2017

MONDAY, April 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- In 2017, tuberculosis (TB) incidence declined in the United States and modest progress was made toward global TB elimination, according to two studies published in the March 21 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Abstract/Full Text - Talwar
Abstract/Full Text - MacNeil

October May Be Best Time for Older Adults to Receive Flu Shot

FRIDAY, April 5, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- It may be best for older adults to wait until October to receive their flu vaccine, unless that delay would cause them to skip getting their flu shot altogether, according to a study published in the April issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Depressive Symptoms May Up Risk for Death in HIV+ Veterans

FRIDAY, April 5, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Among U.S. veterans with HIV infection, depressive symptoms are associated with a significantly increased risk for mortality, but depression is not, according to a study published online March 29 in HIV Medicine.

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Histologic Clearance of CIN2/3 Seen With HPV Therapeutic Vaccine

FRIDAY, April 5, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or 3 associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), an immunotherapeutic tipapkinogen sovacivec (TS) HPV vaccine is effective for achieving histologic resolution, according to a study published online April 4 in Gynecologic Oncology.

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Drop Seen in Preinvasive Cervical Disease With HPV Vaccination

THURSDAY, April 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Routine vaccination of young girls aged 12 to 13 years with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine results in a reduction in preinvasive cervical disease, according to a study published online April 3 in The BMJ.

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Early Hospital Intervention for Diabetes Improves Outcomes

THURSDAY, April 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Early intervention for patients with diabetes in the hospital decreases hyperglycemia and hospital-acquired infections, according to a study published online March 28 in Diabetes Care.

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Heart, Lungs From Hep C-Infected Donor Can Be Transplanted Safely

WEDNESDAY, April 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Hearts and lungs from donors with hepatitis C viremia can be safely transplanted into patients without hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, according to a study published online April 3 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Many ICU Workers Contaminated With Drug-Resistant Bacteria

WEDNESDAY, April 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Improper removal of personal protective equipment (PPE) contaminates health care workers interacting with patients who are on contact precautions for multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), according to a study published online March 20 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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Americans Borrowed $88 Billion in Past Year to Pay for Health Care

TUESDAY, April 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- About one in eight Americans borrowed a total of $88 billion in the past year to pay for health care, a new West Health-Gallup survey shows.

CNN Article
West Health-Gallup Survey

U.S. Measles Cases Already Top Last Year's Total

TUESDAY, April 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The number of measles cases in the United States so far this year has already surpassed the total for last year.

CBS News Article
More Information: CDC

Guidelines for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Updated

TUESDAY, April 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Recommendations have been updated for the management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB); the Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guideline was published online March 21 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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Over-the-Counter Meds Save Health Care System Money

TUESDAY, April 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- On average, each dollar spent on over-the-counter (OTC) medicines saves the U.S. health care system $7.20, totaling nearly $146 billion in annual savings, according to a report released March 18 by the Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA).

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Doctors Unclear on Legal Obligations in Caring for Patients With Disability

MONDAY, April 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Practicing physicians might not understand their legal responsibilities when caring for people with disability, which may contribute to inequalities in their care, according to a study published online April 1 in Health Affairs.

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Nasopharyngeal Microbiota Could Help Diagnose Pediatric LRTIs

MONDAY, April 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Nasopharyngeal microbiota seem to serve as a valid proxy for lower respiratory tract microbiota in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) among children, according to a study published online March 15 in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.

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