July 2019 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for July 2019. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Burnout Symptoms May Up Racial Bias Among Resident Physicians

WEDNESDAY, July 31, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Symptoms of burnout seem to be associated with greater explicit and implicit racial bias among resident physicians, according to a study published online July 26 in JAMA Network Open.

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Editorial

Estimated U.K. Incidence Rate of Lyme Disease 12.1 per 100,000

WEDNESDAY, July 31, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of Lyme disease (LD) increased from 2001 to 2012 in the United Kingdom, with an estimated incidence rate of 12.1 per 100,000 individuals per year, according to a study published online July 30 in BMJ Open.

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$70 Million Settlement Reached in Generic Drug Delay Case

TUESDAY, July 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Three drug companies will pay a total of nearly $70 million to California to settle charges of delaying the sale of generic drugs to keep brand-name drug prices high, the state's attorney general said Monday.

AP News Article

Legionnaires' Disease Outbreak Linked to Atlanta Hotel

TUESDAY, July 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Legionnaires' disease has been diagnosed in 11 people who stayed at the Sheraton Atlanta, and there have been another 55 probable cases, Georgia health officials say.

CNN Article
More Information: CDC

National Norms Developed for Assessing Medical School Empathy

TUESDAY, July 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- National norms have been developed for assessing empathy among men and women at different levels of medical school education, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.

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SGLT-2 Inhibitor Use Not Linked to Increased Risk for UTI Events

TUESDAY, July 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Initiation of therapy with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus is not associated with an increased risk for urinary tract infection (UTI) events compared with initiation of other second-line antidiabetic medications, according to a study published online July 30 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Experts Warn of Mosquito-Borne Brain Infection in Florida

MONDAY, July 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- There is an increased risk for a mosquito-borne virus that causes brain infection and swelling, Florida health officials warn.

CNN Article
More Information: CDC

N.C. Man Dies of Brain-Eating Amoeba After Visiting Water Park

MONDAY, July 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The rare brain-eating amoeba Naegleria fowleri has been confirmed as the cause of death of a North Carolina man.

CBS News Article
More Information: CDC

Substantial Costs Attributable to Hospital-Acquired C. Difficile

MONDAY, July 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection (HA-CDI) is associated with substantial attributable costs, according to a study published online July 25 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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Half of Deaths After Noncardiac Surgery Due to 3 Complications

MONDAY, July 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Three complications account for almost 45 percent of deaths occurring after noncardiac surgery, according to a study published in the July 29 issue of CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Serious Falls Pose Risk to People Living With HIV

MONDAY, July 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Benzodiazepines and muscle relaxants are associated with serious falls among people living with HIV in their 50s, according to a study recently published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

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Some Men at Risk for HIV Do Not Live Near PrEP Provider

FRIDAY, July 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A considerable proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM), who are eligible for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), live in locations with no nearby PrEP provider, according to a study published online July 18 in the American Journal of Public Health.

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Minor Changes in BMD Seen With Tenofovir PrEP in Short Term

THURSDAY, July 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Tenofovir preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) therapy does not appear to be associated with clinically significant declines in bone mineral density (BMD) in the short term, according to a study published online June 19 in AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.

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Targeted Interventions Raise HPV Vaccine Acceptance in Women

THURSDAY, July 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Among young women, targeted educational interventions, particularly educational videos, increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability and knowledge, according to a study published online July 9 in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Abstract/Full Text Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

WHO 'Treat All' Recommendation for HIV Widely Implemented

WEDNESDAY, July 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The World Health Organization "Treat All" strategy for antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation among patients living with HIV was the standard of care at almost all International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) sites by mid-2017, according to a study published in the July issue of the Journal of the International AIDS Society.

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USPSTF Reaffirms Benefit of Hep B Screening in Pregnant Women

TUESDAY, July 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening pregnant women for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection at their first prenatal visit (A recommendation). This recommendation forms the basis of an updated final recommendation statement published in the July 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Recommendation Statement
Evidence Report (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial

Senate Bill Would Reduce Drug Costs for Seniors

TUESDAY, July 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A bill to reduce prescription drug costs for millions of Medicare recipients and lower federal and state health costs has been introduced by two U.S. senators.

AP News Article

T2DM Increases Gastric Cancer Risk After H. Pylori Eradication

TUESDAY, July 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk for gastric cancer after treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection, according to a study published online July 11 in Diabetes Care.

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Nonprescription Antibiotic Use Seems Prevalent in the United States

MONDAY, July 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Nonprescription antibiotic use appears to be prevalent in the United States, according to a review published online July 23 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Rates of Anal Cancer Precursors High in Women Living With HIV

MONDAY, July 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), which precede anal cancer, is high among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the United States, according to a study published online July 11 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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Recommendations Developed for Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine

FRIDAY, July 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- In the July 19 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, recommendations are presented for use of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine.

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Key Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens Reduced With Ivacaftor Use

FRIDAY, July 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), ivacaftor use is associated with a reduction in pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, according to a study published online July 19 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Current Antibiotic Stewardship Program Practices Characterized

FRIDAY, July 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Current infection prevention and antibiotic stewardship program practices continue to include a main focus on surveillance for multidrug-resistant organisms, according to a report published online July 17 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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Safety Practice Violations ID'd in Septic Arthritis Outbreak

THURSDAY, July 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Breaches of recommended infection prevention practices have been identified in an outbreak of septic arthritis cases after intra-articular injections performed in a private outpatient facility, according to a report published online July 17 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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About One in 20 Patients Exposed to Preventable Harm

THURSDAY, July 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The pooled prevalence of preventable patient harm is 6 percent across a range of medical settings globally, according to a review published online July 17 in The BMJ.

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WHO Declares Congo Ebola Outbreak Global Health Emergency

WEDNESDAY, July 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The World Health Organization on Wednesday called the year-old outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo a global health emergency, The New York Times reported.

The New York Times Article
More Information: WHO

Recarbrio OK'd for Complicated Urinary Tract, Intra-Abdominal Infections

WEDNESDAY, July 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The antibacterial drug product Recarbrio (imipenem, cilastatin, and relebactam) has been approved to treat complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) in adults, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced today.

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Protocolized Sepsis Care Lowers Sepsis Mortality in NY State

TUESDAY, July 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- State-mandated protocolized sepsis care is associated with a greater decrease in sepsis mortality compared with that seen in states not implementing sepsis regulations, according to a study published in the July 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Educational Handout May Increase Receipt of Child Flu Shot

TUESDAY, July 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Providing an educational handout about influenza disease in the waiting room before a pediatric provider visit may increase receipt of child influenza vaccine, according to a study published online July 8 in Pediatrics.

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HIV-Infected Cells Persist in CSF in Individuals on Long-Term ART

TUESDAY, July 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- About half of HIV-positive individuals on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) have HIV-infected cells in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), according to a study published online July 15 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

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Congo Officials: First Ebola Case Confirmed in City of Goma

MONDAY, July 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The first case of Ebola in the city of Goma has been confirmed, Democratic Republic of Congo officials said Sunday.

CNN Article

Rabies Warning Issued for Walt Disney World Resort Area

FRIDAY, July 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A rabies warning was issued for Walt Disney World Resort and the surrounding area after a rabid cat scratched two employees.

USA Today Article

Serious Misdiagnosis-Related Harms Mostly Due to 'Big Three'

FRIDAY, July 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Vascular events, infections, and cancers account for about three-quarters of serious misdiagnosis-related harms, according to a study published online July 11 in Diagnosis.

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CRP-Guided Testing Cuts Antibiotic Use in COPD Exacerbations

FRIDAY, July 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), point-of-care testing of C-reactive protein (CRP) to guide antibiotic prescribing can reduce antibiotic use, according to a study published in the July 11 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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CDC: Workplace Absenteeism High in 2017/2018 Flu Season

FRIDAY, July 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Workplace absenteeism during the high-severity 2017 to 2018 influenza season increased sharply in November and peaked in January, reaching a higher level than the average during the previous five seasons, according to research published in the July 5 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Capping Work Hours in Residency Does Not Impact Outcomes Later

THURSDAY, July 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure of U.S. physicians to work-hour reforms during residency training is not associated with post-training differences in patient mortality, readmissions, or costs of care, according to a study published online July 11 in The BMJ.

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Awareness, Use of PrEP on Rise Among Men Who Have Sex With Men

THURSDAY, July 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- There has been a recent increase in the awareness and use of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men (MSM), according to research published in the July 12 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Medicare Drug Rebate Plan Withdrawn by Trump Administration

THURSDAY, July 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A plan to let Medicare patients receive rebates that drug companies currently pay to insurers and middlemen has been withdrawn by the Trump administration.

AP News Article

Exposure to 2009 pH1N1 Vaccine During Pregnancy Seems Safe

THURSDAY, July 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccine in pregnancy is not associated with most negative health outcomes among offspring, according to a study published online July 10 in The BMJ.

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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Hospitalized Pneumonia Patients Often Get Excess Antibiotics

THURSDAY, July 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Patients hospitalized with pneumonia often receive excess antibiotic therapy, according to a study published online July 9 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Health Care Professionals Exhibit Gender Bias

THURSDAY, July 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Survey results show that health care professionals have implicit and explicit gender bias, according to a study published online July 5 in JAMA Network Open.

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Lab Tests Show Experimental Ebola Treatments Effective

WEDNESDAY, July 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Two experimental Ebola treatments being used in the current outbreak in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo have proved effective in laboratory tests with human cells, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study was published online July 9 in the The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Press Release: CDC

Two Algorithms Can ID Patients at Risk for HIV, PrEP Candidates

WEDNESDAY, July 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Two new research papers, published online July 5 in The Lancet HIV, present algorithms that can help identify patients at risk for HIV and candidates for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

Abstract/Full Text - Marcus (subscription or payment may be required)
Abstract/Full Text - Krakower (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Guidance Updated for Managing Infants at Risk for Group B Strep

WEDNESDAY, July 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Guidelines for the management and treatment of group B streptococcal (GBS) disease in infants were published online July 8 in Pediatrics.

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Two-Dose Course of Vaccine After HSCT Cuts Incidence of Zoster

WEDNESDAY, July 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A two-dose course of recombinant zoster vaccine is associated with a reduction in the incidence of herpes zoster among adults who have undergone autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), according to a study published in the July 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Rule Requiring Drug Prices in TV Ads Blocked by Judge

TUESDAY, July 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A Trump administration rule to force pharmaceutical companies to disclose the list prices of their drugs in television ads was blocked Monday by a federal judge.

The New York Times Article

EHR System-Generated In-Basket Messages Linked to Burnout

TUESDAY, July 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Receipt of more than the average number of electronic health record (EHR) system-generated in-basket messages is associated with an increased probability of physician burnout, according to a study published in the July 1 issue of Health Affairs.

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CDC Updates Data on Cases Meeting Criterion for Acute Flaccid Myelitis

TUESDAY, July 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Clinical and laboratory data have been updated for cases that met the clinical criterion for acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) in the United States during 2018, according to a Vital Signs report published in the July 9 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Fewer New Measles Cases Reported Last Week in U.S.

TUESDAY, July 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- There were just over a dozen measles cases reported last week in the United States, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Monday.

CNN Article
More Information: CDC

Infective Endocarditis Prevalence 26 Percent in Patients With E. faecalis

MONDAY, July 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of infective endocarditis (IE) is about 26 percent among patients with Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia, according to a study published in the July 16 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

45 Percent of U.S. Adults Have Some Doubts About Vaccine Safety

MONDAY, July 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Just under half of U.S. adults have some doubts about vaccine safety, according to a survey released by the American Osteopathic Association.

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Interventions Linked to Drop in Unvaccinated Kindergartners

WEDNESDAY, July 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Statewide legislative and educational interventions are associated with a reduction in the yearly rates of kindergartners without up-to-date vaccination status, according to a study published in the July 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Most U.S. Adults Are Concerned About Antibiotic Resistance

WEDNESDAY, July 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Most U.S. adults have heard of and are concerned about antibiotic resistance, but 45 percent report having not taken antibiotics as prescribed, according to a report published online June 21 by the Kaiser Family Foundation.

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Flesh-Eating Bacteria Claims Life of Florida Woman

TUESDAY, July 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A Florida woman died late last week from flesh-eating bacteria two weeks after cutting her leg while walking along the coast.

CNN Article
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Anti-Vaccine Movement a 'Man-Made' Health Crisis, Scientists Warn

TUESDAY, July 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The anti-vaccination movement is now a global crisis, an international panel of scientists say, and everyone must do more to combat it.

Press Release
The Salzburg Statement on Vaccination Acceptance

Considerable Number of Patients Receive Surprise Hospital Charges

TUESDAY, July 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Eighteen percent of all emergency department visits and 16 percent of in-network hospital stays have at least one out-of-network charge, according to a report published June 20 by the Kaiser Family Foundation.

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Stewardship Intervention Can Cut Inappropriate Rx by a Third

MONDAY, July 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Antibiotic stewardship interventions for acute respiratory infection (ARI) can significantly reduce overuse in emergency departments and urgent care centers, according to a study published online June 19 in Academic Emergency Medicine.

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Better UTI Monitoring Needed After Hospital Admission in Adults

MONDAY, July 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Healthcare-associated (HA), community-onset (CO) urinary tract infection (UTI) may be common within 30 days following hospital discharge, according to a study published online June 20 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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