November 2018 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for November 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Case Description Can Reliably Define Acute Flaccid Myelitis

FRIDAY, Nov. 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A case description can reliably define patients with acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), according to a study published online Nov. 30 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Climate Change Ups Heat Deaths, Especially Among Elderly

THURSDAY, Nov. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Risk for heat-related disease and death is rising worldwide due to climate change, according to a report published online Nov. 28 in The Lancet.

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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Most Bills Enacted Into Law Limit Vaccine Exemptions

THURSDAY, Nov. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Most proposed bills in state legislatures from 2011 to 2017 sought to expand access to immunization exemptions, but the majority of bills enacted into law limited exemptions, according to a study published online Nov. 29 in the American Journal of Public Health.

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FDA to Update Medical Device Approvals Process

TUESDAY, Nov. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A major update of the United States' system for approving medical devices was announced yesterday by the Food and Drug Administration.

CBS/AP News Article
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FDA: Safe to Eat Romaine Lettuce Again, but Check Labels

TUESDAY, Nov. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In a statement released late yesterday, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., announced that the agency was lifting its advisory against eating romaine lettuce, first put in place last Tuesday. At that point, the agency had not been able to narrow down the source of the tainted lettuce. But now the source seems to be "end-of-season" lettuce harvested somewhere in the Central Coast regions of central and northern California. And "harvesting of romaine lettuce from this region has [already] ended for the year," Gottlieb noted.

More Information: FDA
More Information: CDC

Four Principles Underlie Patient and Family Partnership in Care

TUESDAY, Nov. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Patient and family partnership in care should include treatment of patients and families with dignity and respect, their active engagement in all aspects of care, and their contribution to the improvement of health care systems and education of health care professionals, according to a position paper published online Nov. 27 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Position Paper
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Newborns Infected With Ebola in Congo Outbreak

MONDAY, Nov. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Ebola infections in newborns are being reported in the current outbreak of the deadly disease in Congo, the World Health Organization says.

AP News Article
More Information: CDC

ACA Coverage Substantial, but Did Not Impact Labor Markets

MONDAY, Nov. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Millions of workers gained insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) without adverse effects on labor markets, according to a report published by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Urban Institute.

Report: How Have Workers Fared Under the ACA?

Early Antibiotic Use May Be Tied to Higher Childhood Body Weight

MONDAY, Nov. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Antibiotic use in children <24 months of age is associated with a slightly higher body weight at 5 years of age, according to a study published recently in Pediatrics.

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Probiotics Show No Benefits for Pediatric Acute Gastroenteritis

MONDAY, Nov. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For children with acute gastroenteritis, probiotics show no significant benefit versus placebo, according to two studies published in the Nov. 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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U of Maryland Student Dies of Adenovirus-Related Illness

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- An 18-year-old University of Maryland student has died from an adenovirus-related illness, and there have been reports of five other cases among students.

CBS News Article
More Information: CDC

FDA Approves Drug for Treatment of Travelers' Diarrhea

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration on Friday announced it has approved Aemcolo (rifamycin), an antibacterial drug indicated for treating adult patients with travelers' diarrhea caused by noninvasive strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) without fever or blood in the stool.

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FDA: Another E. coli Outbreak Linked to Romaine Lettuce

TUESDAY, Nov. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with health officials from various states are asking American consumers to avoid romaine lettuce due to an outbreak of Escherichia coli illness.

FDA Fast Facts
CDC Food Safety Alert

Vaccine-Exempt Students Behind N.C. Chickenpox Outbreak

TUESDAY, Nov. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- North Carolina's largest chickenpox outbreak in decades is centered in a primary school with a large number of vaccine-exempt students, according to health officials.

BBC News Article

CDC Announces Acute Flaccid Myelitis Task Force

TUESDAY, Nov. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A task force to investigate a rising number of cases of a rare polio-like disease among children in the United States has been created by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Performance of AI Dx Tools May Suffer Across Health Systems

TUESDAY, Nov. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Artificial intelligence tools trained to detect pneumonia on chest X-rays have decreased performance when tested on data from outside health systems, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in PLOS Medicine.

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FDA Warns Against Giving Honey-Filled Pacifiers to Infants

MONDAY, Nov. 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Pacifiers filled with or dipped in honey should not be given to infants, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration says.

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Cap'n Crunch Cereal Recalled Due to Salmonella Scare

MONDAY, Nov. 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A small number of boxes of Cap'n Crunch's Peanut Butter Crunch are being recalled due to potential Salmonella contamination, Quaker Oats says.

FDA Recall Notice
More Information: CDC

11th Child Dies in Adenovirus Outbreak at N.J. Care Facility

MONDAY, Nov. 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- An 11th child has died in an outbreak of a respiratory virus at the Wanaque Center for Nursing and Rehabilitation in New Jersey, health officials say.

CBS News Article
More Information: CDC

HIV Transmission Risk Small With Antiretroviral Compliance

MONDAY, Nov. 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The risk for sexual transmission of HIV is negligible when an HIV-positive sex partner adheres to antiretroviral therapy and maintains viral suppression, according to research published in the November issue of CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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CDC: Increase Seen in Salmonella Illnesses From Ground Beef

FRIDAY, Nov. 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There have been 126 more cases of illness added to an investigation into a Salmonella outbreak linked to recalled ground beef products from JBS Tolleson Inc., bringing the total to 246 cases in 25 states, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says.

CDC Food Safety Alert

Climate Change Expected to Lead to Rise in Lyme Disease

FRIDAY, Nov. 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Rising temperatures are expected to increase the number of cases of Lyme disease in the United States by more than 20 percent by mid-century, according to a study published online Oct. 24 in the Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology.

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CDC: 8.8 Percent Uninsured in U.S. in First Half of 2018

FRIDAY, Nov. 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In the first six months of 2018, 8.8 percent of U.S. individuals of all ages were uninsured, which was not significantly different from 2017, according to a report published Nov. 15 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics.

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Name-Brand Medications Driving Spike in U.S. Drug Spending

THURSDAY, Nov. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Rising drug spending in the United States is being fueled by expensive name-brand prescription medicines, a new study shows.

NBC News Article
Blue Cross Blue Shield Report

Patient Experiences Shed Light on Diagnostic Errors

THURSDAY, Nov. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Data from patient- and family-reported error narratives indicate that problems related to patient-physician interactions are major contributors to diagnostic errors, according to a study published in the November issue of Health Affairs.

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CDC: Record Number of Tickborne Disease Cases in U.S. Last Year

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The number of Americans with tickborne diseases reached a record high of nearly 60,000 in 2017, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says.

NBC News Article
CDC Tickborne Disease Surveillance Data Summary
Tickborne Disease Working Group 2018 Report to Congress

AMA to Collect Data on Suicide Among Doctors-in-Training

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- By collecting data on suicides by medical students, residents, and fellows, the American Medical Association hopes to identify ways to reduce suicides among doctors-in-training. The data collection policy was approved at a meeting yesterday.

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CDC Probe Continues as Cases of Acute Flaccid Myelitis Rise

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Cases of a mysterious polio-like illness continue to mount in the United States, and health officials are scrambling to figure out the cause.

HealthDay Article
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2017 Hepatitis A Outbreaks Tied to Drug Use, Homelessness

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Investigations of hepatitis A outbreaks in four states in 2017 suggested a shift toward increasing person-to-person transmission of hepatitis A, according to research published in the Nov. 2 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Ebola Outbreak Worst in Congo's History

TUESDAY, Nov. 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The current Ebola outbreak in Congo is the worst in the country's recorded history, the health ministry says.

AP News Article
More Information: CDC

No Efficacy Signal for Fluoxetine in EV-D68 Acute Flaccid Myelitis

TUESDAY, Nov. 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The antiviral agent fluoxetine is well tolerated but is not effective for patients with proven or presumptive enterovirus D68-associated acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), according to a study published online Nov. 9 in Neurology.

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Quick New Ebola Test Approved by FDA

FRIDAY, Nov. 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A fast, single-use fingerstick test for infection with the Ebola virus has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Progress Toward Goals in Global Health Is Slowing

FRIDAY, Nov. 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Global progress in health has slowed, and improvements in health have been unevenly distributed, according to a series of articles published in a special issue of The Lancet, highlighting the fact that global progress in health is not inevitable.

The Lancet - The Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

Showerhead Mycobacteria Abundant in Regional 'Hot Spots'

FRIDAY, Nov. 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In some regions of the United States, showerheads have an abundance of mycobacteria, and those regions tend to overlap with regions where nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease is most prevalent, according to a study published online Oct. 30 in mBio.

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CDC Warns of Salmonella Illnesses Linked to Raw Turkey

THURSDAY, Nov. 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The total number of illnesses in a Salmonella outbreak linked with raw turkey products now stands at 164 people across 35 states, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Zoliflodacin Seems Effective for Some Gonococcal Infections

THURSDAY, Nov. 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Oral zoliflodacin, which inhibits DNA biosynthesis, seems effective for urogenital and rectal gonococcal infections but is less effective for pharyngeal infections, according to a study published in the Nov. 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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In-Hospital Infection May Up Readmission After Stroke

THURSDAY, Nov. 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with ischemic stroke, infection during stroke hospitalization is associated with increased odds of 30-day readmission, according to a study published online Nov. 1 in Stroke.

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Herpes Zoster Recombinant Vaccine Seems Most Effective

THURSDAY, Nov. 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The herpes zoster adjuvant recombinant subunit vaccine may be more effective than the live attenuated vaccine, though it is associated with an increased risk for adverse events at the injection site, according to a review published online Oct. 25 in The BMJ.

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Medicaid Expansion Approved in Three Republican-Leaning States

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Hundreds of thousands more low-income Americans could get health insurance after voters in three Republican-leaning states approved Medicaid expansion in the midterm elections.

CNBC Article

Possible Salmonella Prompts Duncan Hines Cake Mix Recall

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Four varieties of Duncan Hines cake mix have been recalled due to possible Salmonella contamination.

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Abx-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Tied to Clinical Failure in UTI

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Community-onset urinary tract infection (UTI) due to extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Enterobacteriaceae (EB) is significantly associated with clinical failure, according to a study published online Oct. 30 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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CDC Director Says Congo Ebola Outbreak May Be Uncontainable

TUESDAY, Nov. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- It may not be possible to bring the Ebola outbreak in Congo under control, and the deadly disease may become entrenched in the northeastern part of the country, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director Robert Redfield says.

Washington Post Article
More Information: CDC

CDC: Cases of Polio-Like Illness Still Increasing in the U.S.

TUESDAY, Nov. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Cases of a polio-like condition that mainly affects children continue to rise this year in the United States, health officials say.

More Information: CDC

Over Two Million People Living With Hep C From 2013 to 2016

TUESDAY, Nov. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- During 2013 to 2016, more than two million people in the United States had current hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in Hepatology.

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Stratifying by Severity May Allow Shorter TB Tx Regimens

TUESDAY, Nov. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Stratifying tuberculosis (TB) patients by disease severity may enable shorter treatment regimens, according to a study published online Nov. 5 in Nature Medicine.

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AHA: After 2007 Recs, Increase Seen in Infective Endocarditis

TUESDAY, Nov. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Following the 2007 American Heart Association (AHA) update of recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) to prevent infective endocarditis (IE), there has been a decrease in AP and an increase in IE incidence for high-risk individuals, according to a study published online Nov. 5 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. The research was published to coincide with the annual meeting of the American Heart Association, held from Nov. 10 to 12 in Chicago.

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Surgery Restores Boy's Ability to Walk Post-Acute Flaccid Myelitis

MONDAY, Nov. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A first-of-its-kind surgery has restored the ability to walk in a boy paralyzed by acute flaccid myelitis (AFM).

CBS News Article
More Information: CDC

Majority of Internists Still Have Financial Ties to Industry

MONDAY, Nov. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A majority of internists still report financial ties to industry, according to a study published online Oct. 5 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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Sign-Up Season Begins on HealthCare.gov

FRIDAY, Nov. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The federal government website where Americans can sign up for health insurance under the Affordable Care Act is up and running, officials said yesterday.

AP News Article
HealthCare.gov

HPV Vaccination Uptake Increasing, but Still Too Low

FRIDAY, Nov. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Although progress has been made in increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, coverage is still too low to achieve full cancer prevention potential, according to a report from the President's Cancer Panel published Nov. 1.

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10th Child Dies in Adenovirus Outbreak at N.J. Facility

THURSDAY, Nov. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A 10th child has died in an adenovirus outbreak at the Wanaque Center for Nursing and Rehabilitation in Haskell, N.J., according to the state health department.

CNN Article
More Information: CDC

2011 to 2015 Saw Decline in Health Care-Associated Infections

THURSDAY, Nov. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- From 2011 to 2015, there was a reduction in the prevalence of health care-associated infections, according to a study published in the Nov. 1 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Financial Conflicts of Interest Prevalent Among CPG Authors

THURSDAY, Nov. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There is a high prevalence of financial conflicts of interest among authors of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) related to high-revenue medications and in gastroenterology, according to two research letters published online Oct. 29 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Abstract/Full Text - Khan (subscription or payment may be required)
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Fewer Parents Have Sexuality, Gender Concerns About HPV Shot

THURSDAY, Nov. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Parents' concerns about sexuality and gender as reasons for lack of HPV vaccine initiation in their children decreased substantially from 2010 to 2016, according to a study published in the November issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health.

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Infant Ab Levels Highest With Tdap Vax in Early 3rd Trimester

THURSDAY, Nov. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines given to pregnant women early in the third trimester may offer the most protection against infant pertussis, according to a study published in the Oct. 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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