THURSDAY, May 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Recent use of oral antibiotics is associated with increased odds of nephrolithiasis, according to a study published online May 10 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.
Gregory Tasian, M.D., from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and colleagues assessed the association between 12 classes of oral antibiotics and nephrolithiasis among 25,981 patients (children and adults) with nephrolithiasis and 259,797 controls matched by age, sex, and practice (within 641 general U.K. practices) at the date of diagnosis (index date; 1994 to 2015).
The researchers found that exposure to any one of five different antibiotic classes three to 12 months before the index date was associated with nephrolithiasis. The adjusted odds ratio was 2.33 for sulfas, 1.88 for cephalosporins, 1.67 for fluoroquinolones, 1.70 for nitrofurantoin/methenamine, and 1.27 for broad-spectrum penicillins. The strength of these associations was greatest for exposures at younger ages (P < 0.001) and three to six months before the index date (P < 0.001), with all but broad-spectrum penicillins remaining statistically significant three to five years from exposure.
"These results have implications for disease pathogenesis and the rising incidence of nephrolithiasis, particularly among children," the authors write.