April 2019 Briefing - Neurology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Neurology for April 2019. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Poor Olfaction Tied to Elevated Long-Term Mortality in Seniors

MONDAY, April 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Among older adults, poor olfaction is associated with elevated long-term mortality, according to a study published online April 30 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Significant Number of Referred Patients Misdiagnosed With MS

FRIDAY, April 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly one in five patients referred to a multiple sclerosis specialty center are misdiagnosed, according to a study published in the May issue of Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders.

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Psychostimulant Use Pervasive in Young Adults' Fatal Strokes

FRIDAY, April 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Psychostimulant use plays a substantial role in fatal strokes among young adults, according to a study published online April 2 in the Journal of Forensic Sciences.

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Children With ADHD May Have Higher Risk for Poor Diet

FRIDAY, April 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Children with more attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be at higher risk for an unhealthy diet, but diet quality does not appear to affect ADHD risk, according to a study published in the April issue of The Journal of Nutrition.

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Gender Differences Seen in Adverse Drug Reactions

FRIDAY, April 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The risk for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may be higher for women, even when accounting for gender differences in drug use, according to a study published online April 2 in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

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WHO: No More Than One Hour of Screen Time a Day for Young Children

THURSDAY, April 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Screen time for children younger than 5 should be limited to one hour a day, and those younger than 1 year should get no screen time at all, new World Health Organization guidelines say.

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Emergency Medical Diseases Account for About Half of Mortality

THURSDAY, April 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Emergency medical diseases (EMDs) contribute to about half of mortality and two-fifths of the burden of diseases globally, according to a study recently published in BMJ Global Health.

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Naproxen Sodium Does Not Slow Presymptomatic Alzheimer Disease

THURSDAY, April 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Naproxen sodium twice daily is not associated with reduced progression of presymptomatic Alzheimer disease (AD) among cognitively intact people at risk for the condition, according to a study published online April 5 in Neurology.

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Stroke Patients Infrequently Screened, Treated for Bone Loss

THURSDAY, April 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with recent stroke are rarely screened and treated for osteoporosis, according to a study published online April 25 in Stroke.

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Nusinersen Promising for Later-Onset Spinal Muscular Atrophy

WEDNESDAY, April 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Limited evidence suggests that nusinersen treatment provides long-term benefits for children with later-onset spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), according to a study published online April 24 in Neurology.

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AAP Updates Guidance for Care in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

WEDNESDAY, April 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Guidance has been updated for the health supervision of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), according to a clinical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics published online April 22 in Pediatrics.

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Obesity May Impact the Form and Structure of the Brain

TUESDAY, April 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity is associated with differences in gray matter volumes in the brain, according to a study published online April 23 in Radiology.

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African-Americans With ALS Survive Longer Than Caucasians

MONDAY, April 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), African-Americans have longer survival than Caucasians when death is the outcome, but not when the outcome is death or tracheostomy and invasive ventilation (TIV), according to a study published online March 27 in Neurology.

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Increased Screen Time in Preschool Tied to Worse Inattention

FRIDAY, April 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Increased screen time in preschool is associated with increased odds of clinically significant externalizing problems and clinically significant inattention problems, according to a study published online April 17 in PLOS ONE.

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Loan Forgiveness, Educational Debt May Affect Practice Patterns

FRIDAY, April 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Increased educational debt appears to directly influence physician practice choice, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.

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Acetaminophen Safe as First-Line Analgesic for Most Older Adults

FRIDAY, April 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Despite a potential increased risk for stroke in patients with diabetes, acetaminophen is a safe first-line analgesic for most older adults living in nursing homes, according to a study published online March 26 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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National Hand Hygiene Initiative Successful in Australia

FRIDAY, April 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The National Hand Hygiene Initiative (NHHI) has successfully sustained improvement in hand hygiene compliance, according to a study recently published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases and presented at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, held from April 13 to 16 in Amsterdam.

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Sixty People Charged in Massive Opioid Painkiller Investigation

THURSDAY, April 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Fifty-three medical professionals, including 31 doctors, are among the 60 people charged by U.S. authorities for their alleged involvement in the illegal prescribing and distribution of opioid painkillers.

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Sensory Sensitivity Tied to Constipation in Young Children

THURSDAY, April 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Children with chronic constipation have underlying sensory characteristics that contribute to toileting behavioral difficulties, according to a study published online April 18 in The Journal of Pediatrics.

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Stimulation of Targets in Brain May Up Recollection in Seniors

THURSDAY, April 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- In older adults, high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation of hippocampal-cortical network targets can improve recollection, according to a study published online April 17 in Neurology.

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More Sports Experience May Reduce Impact of Concussions

WEDNESDAY, April 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Youth with a concussion history and greater sport experience may have more skill-related motor "reserve" to lessen the impact of concussions, according to a study published online March 17 in the European Journal of Sport Science.

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Sleep Myths Are Commonly Circulated

WEDNESDAY, April 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Commonly held sleep myths have a questionable evidence base, according to a study published online April 16 in Sleep Health.

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Stroke Hospitalizations Down in Black, White Medicare Enrollees

WEDNESDAY, April 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Rates of hospitalization for stroke have fallen since 1988 for both black and white Medicare enrollees, while black men and women have had greater improvements in 30-day mortality after stroke, according to a study published in the April issue of Medical Care.

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Abnormal Romberg Test Predicts Prolonged Concussion in Children

WEDNESDAY, April 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Abnormal performance on the Romberg test is independently associated with longer duration of symptoms among children and adolescents evaluated within 10 days after concussion, according to a study published online April 16 in the Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics.

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Intensive BP Lowering May Up Cognitive Decline in Elderly

TUESDAY, April 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Older adults (aged ≥75 years) undergoing antihypertensive treatment with systolic blood pressure (SBP) >150 mm Hg have less cognitive decline than those with SBP <130 mm Hg, according to a study published in the March/April issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation Beats Sham Tx for Peds ADHD

TUESDAY, April 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) showed efficacy when compared with a similar sham procedure for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, according to a double-blind, controlled pilot study published in the April issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.

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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Effective for Prenatal Insomnia

TUESDAY, April 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia during pregnancy, according to a study published online April 5 in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Low Scam Awareness May Indicate Alzheimer Risk in Seniors

TUESDAY, April 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Low scam awareness is associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment among older adults, according to a study published online April 16 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Standardizing Demographics Ups Accuracy of Patient Matching

MONDAY, April 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Standardizing demographic data can improve the accuracy of patient matching, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.

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Terminally Ill People in New Jersey Given Right to End Lives

MONDAY, April 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Terminally ill adults in New Jersey will soon be allowed to seek medical help to end their lives.

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New Scale Helps Identify More Serious Cases of Mononucleosis

MONDAY, April 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A new scale for rating the severity of mononucleosis can identify patients at risk for more serious cases, including those who might develop chronic fatigue syndrome following infectious mononucleosis, according to a study recently published in The Journal of Pediatrics.

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AEDs Tied to Higher Pneumonia Risk in Alzheimer Patients

MONDAY, April 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Antiepileptic drug (AED) use may increase the risk for pneumonia in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), according to a study recently published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.

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Myoelectric Computer Interface Beneficial for Stroke Survivors

THURSDAY, April 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A myoelectric computer interface (MyoCI) training paradigm that provides intuitive feedback about muscle activation patterns is well tolerated and can reduce abnormal coactivation among stroke survivors, according to a study published online March 19 in Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair.

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Mindfulness Yoga Aids Patients With Parkinson Disease

THURSDAY, April 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Mindfulness yoga is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson disease to help them manage stress and symptoms, according to a study published online April 8 in JAMA Neurology.

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CDC: Prevalence of Autism at Age 4 Years Increasing

THURSDAY, April 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 4 years increased from 2010 to 2014, according to research published in the April 12 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Very Low LDL-C, Triglycerides Tied to Hemorrhagic Stroke Risk in Women

THURSDAY, April 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Women with very low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or low triglycerides have an increased risk for hemorrhagic stroke, according to a study published online April 10 in Neurology.

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Domestic Responsibilities Tied to Physician Mothers' Satisfaction

THURSDAY, April 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For physician mothers in procedural specialties, being responsible for five or more domestic tasks is associated with an increased likelihood of career dissatisfaction, according to a study published online April 10 in JAMA Surgery.

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Verubecestat, Atabecestat Not Beneficial for Preventing Alzheimer Disease

WEDNESDAY, April 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Use of the orally administered β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 inhibitors, verubecestat and atabecestat, does not prevent clinical progression to Alzheimer disease, according to two studies published in the April 11 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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FDA Warns of Consumer Devices That Claim to Diagnose Concussion

WEDNESDAY, April 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Consumer devices that claim to help assess, diagnose, or manage concussion and other head injuries are unproven and illegal, and using them could pose serious health risks, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warns.

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Haptoglobin Expression Tied to Outcomes in Preterm Newborns

WEDNESDAY, April 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The absence of haptoglobin (Hp) may be a marker of poor neonatal outcomes among preterm newborns exposed to in utero inflammation, according to a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial published online March 22 in EClinicalMedicine.

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Cortical Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis Tracked With 7.0-T MRI

TUESDAY, April 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Cortical lesion development surpasses white matter lesion accrual in multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a study published online April 9 in Radiology.

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New, Revised Topics Released in ACR Appropriateness Criteria

TUESDAY, April 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The latest edition of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria has been released and includes 188 diagnostic imaging and interventional radiology topics, with 908 clinical variants covering more than 1,670 clinical scenarios.

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Proximity to Major Roadways Impacts Child Development

TUESDAY, April 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Proximity to major roadways and prenatal/early life exposure to particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) are associated with childhood developmental delays, according to a study published online April 9 in Environmental Research.

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No Benefit Seen With Rituximab for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

FRIDAY, April 5, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), B-cell depletion using several infusions of rituximab over 12 months is not associated with clinical improvement, according to a study published online April 2 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Pregnancy History Not Likely Tied to Later Cognitive Function

FRIDAY, April 5, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- There is no clinically meaningful long-term association between pregnancy history and age-related change in cognitive function, according to a study published online March 18 in Menopause.

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FDA Reports Cases of Seizures Among Young Vapers

WEDNESDAY, April 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration warned on Tuesday that there have been reports of teens experiencing seizures following the use of electronic cigarettes.

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Minerals Not Linked to Multiple Sclerosis Risk in Women

WEDNESDAY, April 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Mineral intake seems not to be associated with the risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) among women, according to a study published online April 3 in Neurology.

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Beta Interferon Tied to Lower Mortality in Relapsing-Onset MS

WEDNESDAY, April 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis, beta interferon treatment is associated with a lower mortality risk, according to a study published online March 18 in Brain.

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Amyloid PET Linked to Changes in Management for MCI, Dementia

TUESDAY, April 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For Medicare beneficiaries with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia of uncertain etiology, amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) is associated with changes in clinical management, according to a study published in the April 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Americans Borrowed $88 Billion in Past Year to Pay for Health Care

TUESDAY, April 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- About one in eight Americans borrowed a total of $88 billion in the past year to pay for health care, a new West Health-Gallup survey shows.

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Reduction in Autism Diagnoses Observed With DSM-5

TUESDAY, April 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5 (DSM-5) criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) seems to have reduced the number of ASD diagnoses, according to a review published online March 9 in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.

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Over-the-Counter Meds Save Health Care System Money

TUESDAY, April 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- On average, each dollar spent on over-the-counter (OTC) medicines saves the U.S. health care system $7.20, totaling nearly $146 billion in annual savings, according to a report released March 18 by the Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA).

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Guidelines Address PFO Closure for Secondary Stroke Prevention

TUESDAY, April 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- In a Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions expert consensus statement published online March 21 in Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, recommendations are presented for patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for the secondary prevention of recurrent stroke.

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Doctors Unclear on Legal Obligations in Caring for Patients With Disability

MONDAY, April 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Practicing physicians might not understand their legal responsibilities when caring for people with disability, which may contribute to inequalities in their care, according to a study published online April 1 in Health Affairs.

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Awake Endoscopic Spinal Fusion Appears to Be Safe, Effective

MONDAY, April 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Awake endoscopic minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) performed without general anesthesia is safe and seems effective for lumbar fusion, according to a study published online April 1 in Neurosurgical Focus.

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FDA Approves Mavenclad for Treating Multiple Sclerosis

MONDAY, April 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Mavenclad (cladribine) tablets were approved to treat adult patients with relapsing-remitting and active secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) who have inadequately responded to or cannot tolerate an alternate drug for MS, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced Friday.

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Cannabis Products Used Differ for Cancer, Noncancer Patients

MONDAY, April 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The forms of medical cannabis used vary for patients with and without cancer, according to a study published online March 25 in the Journal of Palliative Medicine.

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