June 2019 Briefing - Neurology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Neurology for June 2019. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Family History of Dementia Tied to Early Memory Deficits

FRIDAY, June 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A first-degree family history of dementia is associated with memory deficits decades before the typical onset of Alzheimer disease, according to a study published online June 18 in eLife.

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Infections Tied to Subsequent Risk for Acute Ischemic Stroke

FRIDAY, June 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Different infection types, especially urinary tract infection (UTI), are associated with subsequent acute ischemic stroke, according to a study published online June 27 in Stroke.

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Functional Decline Seen in Many Older Adults Initiating Dialysis

FRIDAY, June 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For older adults initiating dialysis, many experience a decline in functional status after six months, and the prevalence of high caregiver burden increases, according to a study published online June 27 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Soliris Approved to Treat Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

FRIDAY, June 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Soliris (eculizumab) injection as the first treatment for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), the agency announced Thursday.

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Poststroke Headache Common in Pediatric Stroke Survivors

THURSDAY, June 27, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Remote poststroke headache is common among pediatric stroke survivors, according to a study recently published in Neurology: Clinical Practice.

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High BMI, Weight Gain Linked to Lasting Decrease in ALS Risk

THURSDAY, June 27, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- High body mass index (BMI) and weight gain are associated with a reduced long-term risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), according to a study published online June 26 in Neurology.

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Migraine Prevalence Up for Food-Insecure Young Adults

THURSDAY, June 27, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of migraine is elevated for young adults with food insecurity, according to a study published online June 24 in JAMA Neurology.

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Five-Year Overall Survival for Glioblastoma Persistently Low

THURSDAY, June 27, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The percentage of patients achieving five-year survival following a glioblastoma diagnosis remains both steady and low, according to a study published online June 19 in Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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EEG May Detect Brain Activation in Some Unresponsive Patients

WEDNESDAY, June 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Early after acute brain injury, 15 percent of clinically unresponsive patients have electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence of brain activation in response to spoken motor commands, according to a study published online June 26 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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MSSP ACOs May Not Improve Spending, Quality of Care

WEDNESDAY, June 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- After adjustment for the nonrandom exit of clinicians, the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) is not associated with improvements in spending or quality, according to a study published online June 18 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Americans Concerned About Clinician Burnout

WEDNESDAY, June 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly three-quarters of Americans are concerned about burnout among their clinicians, according to a survey released June 17 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP).

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Exposure to Anticholinergics May Increase Dementia Risk

TUESDAY, June 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to anticholinergic drugs is associated with an increased dementia risk, according to a study published online June 24 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Outcomes Poor Years After Radiation for Pediatric Glioma Survivors

TUESDAY, June 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Survivors of childhood low-grade gliomas treated with radiotherapy have poorer neuropsychological and socioeconomic-status (SES) outcomes, according to a study published online June 24 in Cancer.

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Anesthesia Tied to Neurocognitive Impairment in Childhood ALL Survivors

TUESDAY, June 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Multiple exposures to general anesthesia may be associated with neurocognitive impairment and brain imaging abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), according to a study published online June 20 in JAMA Oncology.

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Oral Steroids Increase Infection Risk in Inflammatory Disease

MONDAY, June 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of infection increases with glucocorticoid dose for patients with polymyalgia rheumatica or giant cell arteritis, according to a study published online June 24 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Greater Long-Term Decline in Stroke Seen Among Older Adults

MONDAY, June 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The decline in midlife ischemic strokes over time is less pronounced than the decline among older adults, according to a study published in the June issue of Stroke.

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Seniors Who Develop Cancer Have Better Memory, Slower Decline

FRIDAY, June 21, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Older individuals who develop cancer have better memory and slower memory decline than those who remain cancer-free, according to a study published online June 21 in JAMA Network Open.

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Incident A-Fib Linked to Increased Dementia Risk

FRIDAY, June 21, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Incident atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased dementia risk in elderly populations, according to a study published online June 18 in the European Heart Journal.

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New England Journal of Medicine Picks New Editor-in-Chief

THURSDAY, June 20, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The new editor-in-chief of the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine is Eric J. Rubin, M.D., Ph.D., who was selected after a worldwide search and plans to start in September, according to the Massachusetts Medical Society, which publishes the journal.

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Long Working Hours Linked to Increased Stroke Risk

THURSDAY, June 20, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with long working hours (LWHs) have an increased risk for stroke, with a stronger correlation for those exposed to LWHs for 10 years or more, according to a study published online June 20 in Stroke.

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Health Care Workers With ARIs Often Work While Symptomatic

THURSDAY, June 20, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Almost all health care workers (HCWs) with acute respiratory illness (ARI) report working at least one day while symptomatic, according to a study published online June 18 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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Computer-Assisted Diagnosis Aids Detection of Glioma Growth

THURSDAY, June 20, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) can help physicians detect growth of low-grade gliomas, according to a study published online May 28 in PLOS Medicine.

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Sudden Death Can Occur in Full Spectrum of Epilepsies

WEDNESDAY, June 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) can occur across the full spectrum of epilepsies, according to a study published online June 19 in Neurology.

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Surgeons' Unprofessional Behavior Tied to Higher Complication Risk

WEDNESDAY, June 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Patients whose surgeons have higher numbers of coworker reports about unprofessional behavior may be at increased risk for postsurgical complications, according to a study published online June 19 in JAMA Surgery.

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Late-Life Diabetes Status Tied to New Cognitive Impairment

WEDNESDAY, June 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Having diabetes, poor glycemic control, and longer diabetes duration are associated with worse cognitive outcomes in older adults during a median follow-up of five years, according to a study recently published in Diabetes Care.

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Patterns of Inpatient Opioid Use Linked to Long-Term Use

TUESDAY, June 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Specific patterns of opioid administration to opioid-naive inpatients are associated with risk for long-term use after discharge, according to a study published online June 18 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Cognitive Consequences Worse for Pediatric-Onset Multiple Sclerosis

TUESDAY, June 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) have a more rapid reduction in information-processing efficiency over time in adulthood, and they are more likely to experience cognitive impairment than patients with adult-onset MS (AOMS), according to a study published online June 17 in JAMA Neurology.

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Cognitive Decline Faster After Incident Coronary Heart Disease Event

MONDAY, June 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Incident coronary heart disease (CHD) is associated with accelerated cognitive decline after, but not before, the event, according to a study published in the June 25 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Drug Makers Challenge New Rule Requiring Drug Prices in TV Ads

MONDAY, June 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Three large drug makers have launched a legal challenge against the Trump administration's rule requiring the prices of drugs to be included in television ads.

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Nilvadipine Increases Cerebral Blood Flow in the Hippocampus

MONDAY, June 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease, treatment with nilvadipine lowers systolic blood pressure and increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the hippocampus, according to a study published online June 17 in Hypertension.

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Head, Facial Injuries From Motorized Scooters on the Rise

FRIDAY, June 14, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Facial and head injuries from electric scooter accidents have tripled during the past decade, according to a study published online May 20 in the American Journal of Otolaryngology.

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Maine Legalizes Assisted Suicide

FRIDAY, June 14, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Maine has become the eighth state to legalize medically assisted suicide.

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Prenatal Antiepileptic Rx Exposure Ups Risk for Behavioral Issues

FRIDAY, June 14, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- There is an increased risk for behavioral problems in children of mothers with epilepsy who take common antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy, according to a study published online June 5 in Epilepsia.

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Gabapentinoids Linked to Increased Risk for Significant Adverse Outcomes

THURSDAY, June 13, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Gabapentinoids are associated with increased risks for adverse outcomes related to coordination disturbances, mental health, and criminality, according to a study published online June 12 in The BMJ.

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Next-Gen Sequencing of CSF Improves Diagnosis of CNS Infections

WEDNESDAY, June 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from patients with meningitis or encephalitis can improve diagnosis of neurologic infections, according to a study published in the June 13 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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CDC: Wildlife Rabies, Especially in Bats, Poses Risk in U.S.

WEDNESDAY, June 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Wildlife rabies, especially in bats, poses a risk to humans in the United States, and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is important for preventing death, according to research published in the June 12 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Study Confirms Teratogenicity of Valproic Acid, Topiramate

WEDNESDAY, June 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Valproic acid and topiramate are confirmed teratogens, according to a study published online June 12 in Neurology.

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Most Providers Unaware of Online Feedback About Themselves

WEDNESDAY, June 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Many health care providers in the United Kingdom have little direct experience with online feedback, rarely encourage it, and often view it as having little value for improving the quality of health services, according to a study published online June 2 in the Journal of Health Services Research & Policy.

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Exposure to Air Pollution May Impact Children's Cognitive Abilities

WEDNESDAY, June 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Early-life exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with a reduction in fundamental cognitive abilities, according to a study recently published in Environmental Health Perspectives.

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Virtual Reality IDs Navigation Issues in Early Alzheimer Disease

WEDNESDAY, June 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- An entorhinal cortex-based virtual reality navigation task can differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment at low and high risk for developing dementia, according to a study published in the June issue of Brain.

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Health Care Aides Frequently Report Verbal Abuse

WEDNESDAY, June 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- More than one in five home care (HC) aides report verbal abuse from clients and their family members, according to a study published online June 11 in Occupational & Environmental Medicine.

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Microbes Tied to Pedicle Screw Loosening, Spinal Implant Failure

WEDNESDAY, June 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Low-virulent microorganisms frequently detected on pedicle screws may be an important cause of spinal implant loosening and failure in patients without signs of infection, according to a study recently published in the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.

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Simple Tweaks Retrain Night Owls' Internal Clocks

TUESDAY, June 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Simple tweaks to eating and sleeping patterns of "night owls" can lead to significant improvements in sleep/wake timing, according to a study recently published in Sleep Medicine.

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Number of Cancer Survivors Set to Top 22 Million by 2030

TUESDAY, June 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The number of cancer survivors is projected to increase to more than 22.1 million by Jan. 1, 2030, based on growth and aging of the population alone, according to a study published online June 11 in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.

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Irregular Sleep Patterns May Increase Risk for Metabolic Syndrome

MONDAY, June 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Variability in sleep duration and timing is associated with higher odds of metabolic syndrome, according to a study published online June 5 in Diabetes Care.

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Access to Health Care Has Little Impact on Longevity

MONDAY, June 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Health care has modest effects on extending life expectancy in the United States, while behavioral and social determinants may have larger effects, according to a review published in the May/June issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Irritable Bowel Symptoms Tied to Intestinal, Brain Abnormalities

FRIDAY, June 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A greater number of intestinal and brain function abnormalities increases the burden of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), according to a study recently published in Gastroenterology.

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Single-Component Treatments Effective for Insomnia

FRIDAY, June 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Stimulus control therapy and sleep restriction therapy are viable single-component treatments for chronic insomnia, according to a study published in the June issue of Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing.

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Model Explores How Statins Alter Multiple Sclerosis Outcomes

FRIDAY, June 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Simvastatin's beneficial effects on clinical outcomes and brain atrophy in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are largely independent of cholesterol levels, according to a post hoc study published in the May 28 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Rapid Cycling Work Roster Improves Resident Sleep Practices

THURSDAY, June 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A rapidly cycling work roster (RCWR) is effective in reducing weekly work hours and the occurrence of >16 consecutive-hour shifts as well as improving sleep duration of resident physicians, according to a study published online May 20 in SLEEP.

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Survey Indicates Physician Misconduct Is Underreported

THURSDAY, June 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Physician misconduct is being underreported and most Americans do not know where to file a complaint, according to a report published by the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB).

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Midlife Type 2 Diabetes May Up Later Risk for Cerebral Infarction

THURSDAY, June 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Midlife type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk for cerebral infarction and cerebral artery occlusion in late life, according to a study published online June 6 in Diabetologia.

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Parkinson Disease Incidence Lower in Hep C Patients Who Receive Antivirals

THURSDAY, June 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of Parkinson disease (PD) is lower for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who receive interferon-based antiviral therapy, according to a study published online June 5 in JAMA Neurology.

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Progressive Muscle Relaxation App Tied to Fewer Migraines

THURSDAY, June 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Use of a progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) smartphone app is associated with a reduction in headache days among adults with migraines, according to a pilot study published online June 4 in Nature Digital Medicine.

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Majority of Teens With Eating Disorders Recover

THURSDAY, June 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- One in five patients with adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa have a chronic eating disorder 30 years later, according to a study published online May 22 in the British Journal of Psychiatry.

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Emgality Receives First FDA Approval for Treating Cluster Headache

WEDNESDAY, June 5, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted Emgality (galcanezumab-gnlm) solution the first approval for treating episodic cluster headache, the agency announced yesterday.

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Cholecystectomy Reduces Risk for Stroke in Patients With Gallstones

WEDNESDAY, June 5, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Among patients with gallstones, cholecystectomy is associated with a reduced risk for overall, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke, according to a study published online June 5 in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Lowering Cholesterol Levels May Worsen Nerve Damage in T2DM

WEDNESDAY, June 5, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Lowering serum cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN), according to a study published online May 31 in JAMA Network Open.

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Postop Delirium May Briefly Up Risk for Cognitive Dysfunction

WEDNESDAY, June 5, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Older patients who develop delirium after surgery are more likely to show signs of cognitive dysfunction one month later, according to a study published online May 28 in Anesthesiology.

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Policy Changes Proposed to Meet Projected Need for Palliative Care

TUESDAY, June 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Policies to support team-based palliative care are urgently needed to meet the growing demand for specialty palliative care, according to a study published in the June issue of Health Affairs.

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ACP Issues Position on Response to Physician Impairment

MONDAY, June 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Providing assistance for physician impairment and rehabilitation is addressed in a position statement issued by the American College of Physicians and published online June 4 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Functional Limitations Persist One Year After Mild TBI

MONDAY, June 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Many patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) report persistent functional limitations one year after injury, according to a study published online June 3 in JAMA Neurology.

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Guidelines Issued for Addressing Heart Disease Risk in HIV

MONDAY, June 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- People living with HIV (PLWH) have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), a risk that needs appropriate management and treatment, according to a scientific statement issued by the American Heart Association and published online June 3 in Circulation.

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FDA Takes Hard Look at CBD

MONDAY, June 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration took a good look at the safety and effectiveness of cannabidiol (CBD) products on Friday, as it weighs how to best regulate the hemp-derived compound going forward.

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