June 2019 Briefing - Pathology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for June 2019. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

USPSTF Lung Cancer Screening Too Conservative for Blacks

THURSDAY, June 27, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Current U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines for lung cancer screening eligibility may be too conservative for African American smokers, according to a study published online June 27 in JAMA Oncology.

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High BMI, Weight Gain Linked to Lasting Decrease in ALS Risk

THURSDAY, June 27, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- High body mass index (BMI) and weight gain are associated with a reduced long-term risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), according to a study published online June 26 in Neurology.

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MSSP ACOs May Not Improve Spending, Quality of Care

WEDNESDAY, June 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- After adjustment for the nonrandom exit of clinicians, the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) is not associated with improvements in spending or quality, according to a study published online June 18 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Physicians Unaware of Breast Density Laws, Cancer Risk

WEDNESDAY, June 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians need more education about breast density and breast cancer screening, according to a study recently published in the Journal of Women's Health.

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Combination Biopsy Strategy May Identify More Prostate Cancers

WEDNESDAY, June 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A lesion visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identifies a heightened risk for clinically significant prostate cancer in men undergoing first-time prostate biopsy, and a combination of targeted and systematic biopsy may improve the chances of detecting cancer, according to a study published online June 12 in JAMA Surgery.

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Nonchromosomal Birth Defects May Up Childhood Cancer Risk

MONDAY, June 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Children with nonchromosomal birth defects have a higher relative risk for cancer, though the absolute risk is still low, according to a study published online June 20 in JAMA Oncology.

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Seniors Who Develop Cancer Have Better Memory, Slower Decline

FRIDAY, June 21, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Older individuals who develop cancer have better memory and slower memory decline than those who remain cancer-free, according to a study published online June 21 in JAMA Network Open.

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Poor Oral Health Not Linked to Gastrointestinal Cancer Risk

FRIDAY, June 21, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Self-reported poor oral health is not associated with gastrointestinal cancer risk, although it may be associated with hepatobiliary cancer, specifically hepatocellular carcinoma, according to a study published online June 8 in the United European Gastroenterology Journal.

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New England Journal of Medicine Picks New Editor-in-Chief

THURSDAY, June 20, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The new editor-in-chief of the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine is Eric J. Rubin, M.D., Ph.D., who was selected after a worldwide search and plans to start in September, according to the Massachusetts Medical Society, which publishes the journal.

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Health Care Workers With ARIs Often Work While Symptomatic

THURSDAY, June 20, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Almost all health care workers (HCWs) with acute respiratory illness (ARI) report working at least one day while symptomatic, according to a study published online June 18 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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Coronary Artery Calcium Levels in Middle Age Tied to LV Function

TUESDAY, June 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For middle-aged individuals, higher levels of coronary artery calcium (CAC) are associated with higher left ventricular (LV) mass and worse LV function, according to a study published online June 14 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging.

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WHO: Congo Ebola Outbreak Still Not Global Emergency

MONDAY, June 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Even though the Ebola outbreak in Congo recently caused deaths in neighboring Uganda, it is still not a global emergency, the World Health Organization says.

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Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Varies by Birthplace for Black Women

MONDAY, June 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Among black women in the United States, the prevalence of triple-negative breast cancer varies by birthplace, according to a study published online June 13 in Cancer.

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Nilvadipine Increases Cerebral Blood Flow in the Hippocampus

MONDAY, June 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease, treatment with nilvadipine lowers systolic blood pressure and increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the hippocampus, according to a study published online June 17 in Hypertension.

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Maine Legalizes Assisted Suicide

FRIDAY, June 14, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Maine has become the eighth state to legalize medically assisted suicide.

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FDA Warns of Infections From Fecal Transplants After One Death

FRIDAY, June 14, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- On Thursday, federal health officials announced that a patient has died after fecal microbiota transplantation, highlighting the potential for severe infections linked to the procedure.

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CDC Opens Emergency Operations Center for Congo Ebola Outbreak

THURSDAY, June 13, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The United States is stepping up its response to a historic outbreak of Ebola in two African nations. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention activated its Emergency Operations Center Thursday to assist in the government's response to the second-largest outbreak of Ebola on record.

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HPV16 Antibodies Can Develop Long Before Throat Cancer Diagnosis

THURSDAY, June 13, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Seroconversion to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-E6 antibody positivity can occur decades before diagnosis of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), according to a study published online June 12 in the Annals of Oncology.

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FIGO 2018 Staging Ups Discrimination of Stage 1B Cervical Cancer

THURSDAY, June 13, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2018 staging schema improves discriminatory ability for women with stage IB cervical tumors, according to a study published online June 11 in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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CDC: Wildlife Rabies, Especially in Bats, Poses Risk in U.S.

WEDNESDAY, June 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Wildlife rabies, especially in bats, poses a risk to humans in the United States, and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is important for preventing death, according to research published in the June 12 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Next-Gen Sequencing of CSF Improves Diagnosis of CNS Infections

WEDNESDAY, June 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from patients with meningitis or encephalitis can improve diagnosis of neurologic infections, according to a study published in the June 13 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Nitrate Pollution of Tap Water May Cause Thousands of Cancer Cases

WEDNESDAY, June 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Nitrate pollution of drinking water has serious health and economic consequences, according to a study published online June 11 in Environmental Research.

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Virtual Reality IDs Navigation Issues in Early Alzheimer Disease

WEDNESDAY, June 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- An entorhinal cortex-based virtual reality navigation task can differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment at low and high risk for developing dementia, according to a study published in the June issue of Brain.

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Microbes Tied to Pedicle Screw Loosening, Spinal Implant Failure

WEDNESDAY, June 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Low-virulent microorganisms frequently detected on pedicle screws may be an important cause of spinal implant loosening and failure in patients without signs of infection, according to a study recently published in the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.

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USPSTF Issues Recommendations on HIV Screening, Prevention

TUESDAY, June 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and HIV screening for prevention of HIV infection. These recommendations form the basis of two final recommendation statements published online June 11 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Recommendation Statement - Screening
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Diagnostic Yield of Lynch Syndrome Screening Drops With Age

TUESDAY, June 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The incremental diagnostic yield of Lynch syndrome (LS) screening decreases substantially after age 70 to 75 years, according to a study published online June 11 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Polygenic Risk Score Reliably Predicts Coronary Artery Disease

TUESDAY, June 11 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Genome-wide polygenic risk scores (PRS) can predict coronary artery disease (CAD), according to a study published online June 11 in Circulation: Genomic and Precision Medicine.

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Location of Body Fat Linked to Advanced, Fatal Prostate Cancer

MONDAY, June 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Specific fat deposits, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference are associated with an increased risk for advanced and fatal prostate cancer, according to a study published online June 10 in Cancer.

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Half an Hour of Sun Exposure Daily May Lower Risk for Pediatric IBD

MONDAY, June 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Higher sun exposure in the previous summer or winter is associated with a lower risk for having pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to a study recently published in the Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition.

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Access to Health Care Has Little Impact on Longevity

MONDAY, June 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Health care has modest effects on extending life expectancy in the United States, while behavioral and social determinants may have larger effects, according to a review published in the May/June issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Mouth Rinse for HPV DNA May Be Biomarker in Head, Neck Cancer

MONDAY, June 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detected from a mouth rinse may be an effective marker for prognosis during treatment of HPV-positive head and neck cancer, according to a study recently published in JAMA Oncology.

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Exposure to Air Pollution May Affect Pulmonary Circulation

FRIDAY, June 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Long-term black carbon exposure is associated with a larger peripheral total pulmonary vascular volume measured on noncontrast chest computed tomography (TPVVCT), according to a study published in the June 1 issue of the European Respiratory Journal.

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Cell-Free DNA Testing IDs Trisomy 21 in Twin Pregnancies

FRIDAY, June 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Performance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies is similar to that reported in singleton pregnancies, according to research published online June 4 in Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Rapid Cycling Work Roster Improves Resident Sleep Practices

THURSDAY, June 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A rapidly cycling work roster (RCWR) is effective in reducing weekly work hours and the occurrence of >16 consecutive-hour shifts as well as improving sleep duration of resident physicians, according to a study published online May 20 in SLEEP.

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Survey Indicates Physician Misconduct Is Underreported

THURSDAY, June 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Physician misconduct is being underreported and most Americans do not know where to file a complaint, according to a report published by the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB).

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Midlife Type 2 Diabetes May Up Later Risk for Cerebral Infarction

THURSDAY, June 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Midlife type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk for cerebral infarction and cerebral artery occlusion in late life, according to a study published online June 6 in Diabetologia.

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Overdose-Death Donor Hearts Suitable for Transplant

THURSDAY, June 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Recipient overall survival is similar for overdose-death donor (ODD) and non-ODD cardiac transplants, according to a study published online June 6 in the Annals of Thoracic Surgery.

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Fragmentation Profiles of Cell-Free DNA Can Detect Cancer

WEDNESDAY, June 5, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Fragmentation profiles of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can differentiate between patients with cancer and healthy controls, according to a study published online May 29 in Nature.

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Lowering Cholesterol Levels May Worsen Nerve Damage in T2DM

WEDNESDAY, June 5, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Lowering serum cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN), according to a study published online May 31 in JAMA Network Open.

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Allo-HCT With Unrelated Donor Tied to Better Outcomes in AML

TUESDAY, June 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) with an unrelated donor (UD) results in better transplantation outcomes than cord blood transplantation (CBT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with active disease, according to a study recently published in the Blood Cancer Journal.

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Staphylococcus aureus Linked to Food Sensitization in Eczema

TUESDAY, June 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For children with eczema, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization is associated with food sensitization and allergy independent of eczema severity, according to a study published online May 31 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

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ACP Issues Position on Response to Physician Impairment

MONDAY, June 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Providing assistance for physician impairment and rehabilitation is addressed in a position statement issued by the American College of Physicians and published online June 4 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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