October 2018 Briefing - Pathology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for October 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Barriers to Prostate Cancer Research in Black Men Identified

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 31, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A lack of understanding of terminology, health care system distrust, and a lack of prostate cancer knowledge are among the barriers to genomic testing for prostate cancer and prostate cancer research participation among black men, according to a study published in the November issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Antibiotics, Acid Suppressants in Infancy May Up Obesity Risk

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 31, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Prescription of antibiotics and acid-suppressing medications in early childhood is associated with an increased risk for obesity, according to a study published online Oct. 30 in Gut.

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Genetic Risk Score IDs Breast CA Risk in Female Child CA Survivors

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 31, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A polygenic risk score (PRS) can identify subsequent breast cancer risk among childhood survivors of cancer, according to a study published online Oct. 26 in Clinical Cancer Research.

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AMA Announces Initiative to Reinvent Physician Training

TUESDAY, Oct. 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The American Medical Association (AMA) today announced a new $15 million competitive grant initiative, the "Reimagining Residency" initiative, aimed at improving residency training.

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Guidelines Presented for Lumbar Puncture in Alzheimer's Dx

TUESDAY, Oct. 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The Alzheimer's Association has released appropriate-use criteria for lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing in Alzheimer's disease diagnosis, according to a review article published online Oct. 10 in Alzheimer's & Dementia.

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Many Hospitals Noncompliant With Record Request Regulations

MONDAY, Oct. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Among top-ranked U.S. hospitals, data reveal discrepancies in information provided to patients regarding medical records release processes as well as noncompliance with state and federal regulations, according to a study published online Oct. 5 in JAMA Network Open.

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Hypofractionated Radiation OK for Localized Prostate CA

MONDAY, Oct. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A new clinical guideline for early-stage prostate cancer supports the use of shortened courses of radiation therapy, according to an article published in Practical Radiation Oncology.

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Trump Administration Announces Plan to Cut Drug Prices

FRIDAY, Oct. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In an effort to cut high drug costs, the prices paid by Medicare for certain prescription drugs would be based on those in other advanced industrial nations, according to a proposal announced Oct. 25 by the Trump administration.

HHS Study
New York Times Article

Pace of Change Has Accelerated in Alternative Payment Models

THURSDAY, Oct. 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The impact of alternative payment models (APMs) on physician practices has been described in a study published by the RAND Corp. and the American Medical Association.

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Arthritis in Adulthood Linked to Childhood Maltreatment

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of arthritis is higher among adults who experience severe and/or frequent childhood maltreatment, according to a study published online Oct. 17 in Arthritis Care & Research.

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White House Unveils New Insurance Option for Small Firms

TUESDAY, Oct. 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A plan to allow small businesses to use tax-free accounts to provide health coverage for employees was announced today by the Trump administration.

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Intensive SBP Tx Cuts Kidney Damage Biomarkers in Incident CKD

TUESDAY, Oct. 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the setting of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) treatment have decreases rather than increases in kidney damage biomarkers, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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CDC: First U.S. Case of Rat-Borne Andes Virus Diagnosed

FRIDAY, Oct. 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The first confirmed U.S. case of a virus carried by South American rodents occurred earlier this year, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says.

CNN Article
CDC Case Report

Bioinformatics Tool Can ID Source of Bloodstream Pathogens

FRIDAY, Oct. 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A streamlined bioinformatics tool can match bloodstream pathogens to a candidate source, according to a study published online Oct. 15 in Nature Medicine.

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Triple Combo Regimens May Address Cause of Cystic Fibrosis

FRIDAY, Oct. 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Triple therapy with VX-659 or VX-445 combined with tezacaftor-ivacaftor shows promise for the treatment of adult patients with cystic fibrosis who have mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), according to two studies published online Oct. 18 in the New England Journal of Medicine. The studies were published to coincide with a presentation at the annual North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference, held from Oct. 18 to 20 in Denver.

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WHO: Congo Ebola Outbreak Not a Global Emergency

THURSDAY, Oct. 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The latest Ebola outbreak in Congo is not yet severe enough to be declared a global emergency, the World Health Organization decided after a meeting of experts yesterday.

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Clostridium difficile Spores Survive Laundering of Sheets

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 17, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Clostridium difficile spores are able to survive laundering through a commercial washer extractor, according to a study published online Oct. 16 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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Procurement Requirements Drive Interoperability in Health Care IT

THURSDAY, Oct. 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Interoperability of health care information technology (IT) must be improved to facilitate creation of a fully integrated health care system that can improve health and health care at lower cost, according to a report published by the National Academy of Medicine.

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Limited Evidence for OTC Preps to Treat Nasal Symptoms of Colds

THURSDAY, Oct. 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Limited evidence is available for over-the-counter (OTC) treatments for nasal symptoms of the common cold, according to a report published online Oct. 10 in The BMJ.

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Plasma-Based Genotyping Aids Targeted Tx of Metastatic NSCLC

THURSDAY, Oct. 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Integration of plasma next-generation sequencing (NGS) into the routine management of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) results in an increase in the detection of therapeutically targetable mutations, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in JAMA Oncology.

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Positive HPV Status Tied to Better Cervical Cancer Prognosis

TUESDAY, Oct. 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Women with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-positive cervical tumors have a substantially better prognosis than women with hrHPV-negative tumors, according to a study published online Oct. 1 in PLOS Medicine.

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Without Medicaid Expansion, Poor Patients Forgo Medical Care

MONDAY, Oct. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Doing without medical care is much more common among low-income residents of states that have not expanded Medicaid than among low-income people in other states, according to a Government Accountability Office report.

AP News Article

FDA Approves New DNA-Based Test to Verify Blood Compatibility

FRIDAY, Oct. 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the ID CORE XT DNA-based test to help doctors verify blood compatibility before a transfusion.

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Zoledronate Lowers Fracture Risk in Women With Osteopenia

FRIDAY, Oct. 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The risk for fragility fractures is significantly lower in women with osteopenia who receive zoledronate than in those who receive placebo, according to a study published online Oct. 1 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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High Circulating Prolactin Level Inversely Linked to T2DM Risk

FRIDAY, Oct. 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Among U.S. women, a normally high circulating prolactin concentration is associated with a reduced risk for type 2 diabetes, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in Diabetologia.

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Diet Less Important Than Genes for High Serum Urate Levels

THURSDAY, Oct. 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Diet explains little of the variation in serum urate levels in the general population, while genetic factors make a greater contribution, according to a meta-analysis published online Oct. 10 in The BMJ.

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Wall Thickness Measured by MRI More Consistently Linked to CVD

THURSDAY, Oct. 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Common carotid artery (CCA) wall thickness measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more consistently associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes than intima-media thickness measured by ultrasound, according to a study published online Oct. 9 in Radiology.

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Aetna-CVS Merger Approved

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A $69 billion merger between health insurer Aetna and pharmacy manager CVS Health has been approved, according to the U.S. Justice Department.

The New York Times Article

Mechanical Ventilation May Alter Diaphragm Muscle Fibers

TUESDAY, Oct. 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In critically ill patients, mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) results in reduced diaphragm fiber length that may make it more difficult to wean patients from mechanical ventilation, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Minority Residents Experience Burdens Linked to Race/Ethnicity

TUESDAY, Oct. 9 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Minority residents describe burdens associated with race/ethnicity, including microaggressions and bias on a daily basis, according to a study published online Sept. 28 in JAMA Network Open.

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Integrated Classifier Identifies Benign Lung Nodules

TUESDAY, Oct. 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- An integrated plasma proteomics classifier, which integrates the relative abundance of two plasma proteins with a clinical risk prediction model, can distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules in those at low-to-intermediate risk for cancer, according to a study published in the September issue of CHEST.

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Industry-Funded Trials Often Involve Employees in Studies

FRIDAY, Oct. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Industry employees are often involved in the design, conduct, and reporting of industry-funded trials in high-impact journals, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in The BMJ.

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Tips Provided for Budgeting in Medical Residency

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Medical residents should start budgeting and save for the future, according to an article published in the American Medical Association AMA Wire.

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Three-Quarters of Health Care Workers Got Flu Shot Last Year

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Just over three-quarters of health care personnel received a flu vaccine last season, according to research published in the Sept. 28 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Genomic Screening Can ID Undetected BRCA1/2 Cancer Risk

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Exome sequencing-based screening may identify pathogenic and likely pathogenic (P/LP) BRCA1/2 variants that might otherwise remain undetected, according to a study published online Sept. 21 in JAMA Network Open.

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Uninsured Rate at 8.8 Percent in First Quarter of 2018

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In the first quarter of 2018, the uninsured rate was 8.8 percent, not significantly different from a year earlier, according to a report released Aug. 29 by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

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For Employer-Based Plans, Spending Across Services Steady

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Despite large health policy changes, the distribution of spending across service areas has remained fairly consistent over the past 10 years for those enrolled in employer-sponsored insurance, according to a study published in the October issue of Health Affairs.

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Negligible Drop in Neoplastic Lesion Dx After First Round of FIT

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- After the first round of a fecal immunochemical test (FIT)-based, multiple-round, long-term screening program, there is a negligible reduction in detection rates for neoplastic lesions in the proximal versus the distal colon, according to a study published online Oct. 2 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Second Opinion at NCI Center Valuable for Breast CA Patients

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Almost 43 percent of patients diagnosed with breast cancer presenting to a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer center for a second opinion have a change in diagnosis, according to a study published in the October issue of the Annals of Surgical Oncology.

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Interviews Can Help Ensure Physician Candidates Fit Culture

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In preparing to interview to hire a new physician, practices must understand their own cultures, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Number of Health-Related Data Breaches Increasing

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The number of health data breaches has steadily increased since 2010, according to a research letter published in the Sept. 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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First Human Case of Rat Strain of Hepatitis E Seen in Hong Kong

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The first human case of a strain of hepatitis E previously found only in rats was diagnosed in a Hong Kong man who received a liver transplant in May 2017.

The New York Times Article

WHO: 'Very High Risk' That Ebola Will Spread From Congo

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There is a "very high" risk that the latest Ebola outbreak in Congo will spread beyond that nation's borders, the World Health Organization warns.

AP News Article
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Hospital Privacy Curtains Become Increasingly Contaminated

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Curtains surrounding patient beds become progressively contaminated with bacteria, according to a study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

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Risk of Relapse Up for Teens, Young Adults With Leukemia

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescents and young adults (AYA; aged 15 to 39 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased risk of on-therapy relapse and relapse after completing therapy compared with children with ALL, according to a study published online Sept. 27 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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More Non-Elderly Americans Uninsured in 2017 Versus 2016

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- From 2016 to 2017, there was an increase in the number of uninsured non-elderly Americans, according to a report published by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

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Genetics May Identify Type 2 Diabetes Subtypes

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Clusters of type 2 diabetes (T2D) loci and traits have been identified, according to a study published online Sept. 21 in PLOS Medicine.

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