December 2018 Briefing - Pulmonology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pulmonology for December 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

New Guidelines Address Care for Malignant Pleural Effusions

FRIDAY, Dec. 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- New clinical practice guidelines for the management of malignant pleural effusions were published in the January issue of the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Low-Priced Generic Drugs Most Likely to Have Shortages

THURSDAY, Dec. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The lowest-priced generic drugs are more likely to experience shortages, according to a study published in the November issue of Value in Health.

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30-Day Postdischarge Mortality Up With HRRP Implementation

THURSDAY, Dec. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Announcement and implementation of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) were associated with increased 30-day postdischarge mortality following hospitalization for heart failure and pneumonia, but not acute myocardial infarction (AMI), according to a study published in the Dec. 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Elevated Risk for Lung CA in Lung Transplant Recipients Explored

THURSDAY, Dec. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Recipients of a lung transplant, especially a single lung transplant, have an elevated risk for lung cancer, particularly in the native lung, according to a study published online Dec. 18 in the American Journal of Transplantation.

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Pediatric Asthma Risk Score Has Good Sensitivity, Specificity

THURSDAY, Dec. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A new quantitative personalized tool can better predict asthma development in young children than the Asthma Predictive Index (API), according to a study published online Dec. 13 in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

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Initiative Can Cut Gender Gap in Medical School Faculty Salaries

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- An institutional gender equity initiative (GEI) can reduce gender-based salary gaps among medical school faculty, according to a study published online Dec. 21 in JAMA Network Open.

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Updated Guidelines Developed for Diagnosing, Treating Influenza

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The Infectious Diseases Society of America has updated their recommendations for the care of patients with suspected or diagnosed influenza; the clinical practice guidelines were published online Dec. 19 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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Home Oxygen Users Experience Problems Related to Equipment

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Home oxygen users often experience problems related to their oxygen equipment that may impact their quality of life, according to a report published in the December issue of the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Vit C for Pregnant Smokers May Improve Newborn Lung Function

MONDAY, Dec. 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For pregnant smokers, vitamin C supplementation may improve newborn lung function, according to a study published online Dec. 7 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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FDA Warns Companies on Unsafe, Unapproved Stem Cell Treatments

FRIDAY, Dec. 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- After infections tied to unapproved stem cell treatments sent 12 people to the hospital this past year, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a stern warning about the products.

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Age, BMI Predict Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment Success

FRIDAY, Dec. 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Among patients with obstructive sleep apnea, older age and reduced body mass index (BMI) are predictors of upper airway stimulation (UAS) treatment response, according to a study published online Nov. 28 in the European Respiratory Journal.

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Growth in Use of Telemedicine Seen From 2005 to 2017

THURSDAY, Dec. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- From 2005 to 2017, there was a substantial increase in telemedicine use, although use was still uncommon in 2017, according to a research letter published online Nov. 27 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Affordable Care Act Sign-Ups Higher Than Expected

THURSDAY, Dec. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Despite numerous difficulties, early figures show that sign-ups for health coverage next year under the Affordable Care Act are higher than expected.

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Restrictive, Obstructive Lung Disease Linked to Dementia Risk

THURSDAY, Dec. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Both restrictive and obstructive lung disease are associated with an increased risk for incident dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), according to a study recently published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Cognitive Therapy Helps Reduce Anxiety in COPD Patients

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) delivered by respiratory nurses is associated with reduced anxiety symptoms and is cost-effective for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to a study recently published in ERJ Open Research.

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'Aggressive Steps' Needed to Stop Adolescent Use of E-Cigarettes

TUESDAY, Dec. 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- "Aggressive steps" must be taken by parents, teachers, health providers, and government officials to prevent children and teens from using electronic cigarettes, U.S. Surgeon General Jerome Adams, M.D., M.P.H., said in an advisory.

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Hospitalizations Up for Homeless From 2007 to 2013

TUESDAY, Dec. 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- From 2007 to 2013, hospitalizations among homeless individuals increased and were most frequently for mental illness and substance use disorder, according to a study published in the January issue of Medical Care.

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Exclusion of Doctors From Public Health Insurance Up 2007 to 2017

TUESDAY, Dec. 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- From 2007 to 2017, the number of physicians excluded from Medicare and state public insurance programs increased, according to a study published online Dec. 14 in JAMA Network Open.

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Chest CT Can ID Respiratory AE Risk in RA Patients on Biologics

TUESDAY, Dec. 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Chest computed tomography (CT) findings may identify risk factors for respiratory adverse events (RAEs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients undergoing long-term biological therapy, according to a study recently published in the International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases.

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Solriamfetol Feasible for Sleep Apnea-Related Tiredness

MONDAY, Dec. 17, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Solriamfetol therapy, compared with placebo, results in improvements in wakefulness and sleepiness measures in patients with excessive sleepiness due to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), according to a study published online Dec. 6 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Persistent Discrimination ID'd Among Physician Mothers

FRIDAY, Dec. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Physician mothers experience discrimination in a range of ways, which can impact the medical profession, according to a study published online Dec. 12 in The BMJ.

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Subfertility Linked to Increased Asthma Risk in Offspring

FRIDAY, Dec. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Parental subfertility is associated with an increased asthma risk among offspring, according to a study published online Dec. 4 in Thorax.

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Inhaling Hypertonic Saline May Aid Infants With Cystic Fibrosis

THURSDAY, Dec. 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In infants with cystic fibrosis (CF), preventive inhalation with hypertonic saline (HS) during the first months of life is safe and well tolerated and results in clinical improvements, according to a study recently published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Medication Errors Resulting in Death Most Common in Elderly

THURSDAY, Dec. 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Medication errors in acute care that result in death occur most often in patients older than 75 years, with the most common error category being omitted medicine or ingredient, according to a study published online Nov. 22 in Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy.

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Influenza Hospitalization More Likely in Underweight, Obese

THURSDAY, Dec. 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Adults with influenza are more likely to be hospitalized if they are obese or underweight than if they are normal weight, according to a study published online Dec. 4 in Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses.

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Enrollment Under the Affordable Care Act Down From Last Year

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Enrollment for health insurance under the Affordable Care Act is down with just days left to sign up, according to the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.

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Sleep Length, Quality Linked to Risk for Falls, Fractures

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Both short and long sleep duration and poor sleep quality are associated with increased odds of recurrent falls in women, according to a study published online Nov. 21 in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.

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2017 Saw Slowing in National Health Care Spending

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- National health care spending slowed in 2017, according to a report published online Dec. 6 in Health Affairs.

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U.S. Medical Schools See Increase in Diversity

TUESDAY, Dec. 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- After implementation of the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) diversity accreditation standards, U.S. medical schools saw increasing percentages of female, black, and Hispanic matriculants, according to a research letter published in the Dec. 4 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Paid Childbearing Policies Lacking for Residents

TUESDAY, Dec. 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Policies for paid childbearing or family leave for residents are lacking at top-ranking medical schools and may be exacerbated by lack of direction from specialty boards, according to two research letters published in the Dec. 11 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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HIT-Related Stress Linked to Burnout Among Physicians

MONDAY, Dec. 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Stress related to use of health information technology (HIT) is common and predictive of burnout among physicians, according to a study published online Dec. 5 in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.

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Veterans Health Administration Hospitals Outperform Non-VHAs

MONDAY, Dec. 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals outperform non-VHA hospitals for 14 of 15 outcome measures in 121 regions, according to a research letter published online Dec. 11 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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PM2.5 Exposure Linked to Asthma Rescue Medication Use

MONDAY, Dec. 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For individuals with asthma, increased fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure is associated with increased weekly rescue inhaler use, according to a study published online Nov. 26 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Most Insured Patients Not Using Online Portals

FRIDAY, Dec. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly two-thirds of insured adults with a previous health care visit did not use an online patient portal in 2017, according to a study published in the December issue of Health Affairs.

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Rural Residence, Poverty Are Risk Factors for COPD

FRIDAY, Dec. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Rural residence and poverty are risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to a study recently published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Lack of Peds Preventive Care Ups Unplanned Hospital Admissions

FRIDAY, Dec. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A lack of preventive care in infants and children is associated with an increased rate of unplanned hospital admissions, according to a study recently published in BMC Medicine.

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Patient Education Can Improve Chronic Disease Management

FRIDAY, Dec. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- An educational intervention can improve patients' ability to self-manage their chronic diseases, according to a study published in the November issue of the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.

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Secondhand Smoke Exposure Saw Big Drop From 1988 to 2014

FRIDAY, Dec. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Secondhand smoke exposure declined substantially among U.S. nonsmokers from 1988 through 2014, according to research published in the Dec. 7 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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COPD Tied to Obesity in Male, Female Never-Smokers

THURSDAY, Dec. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity is strongly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in never-smokers, according to a study published online Nov. 20 in the Journal of Obesity.

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Smoke Exposure High in Low-Income, Nonurban Infants

THURSDAY, Dec. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Infants from low-income, nonurban families have a high magnitude of environmental smoke exposure, according to a study published online Dec. 5 in Nicotine & Tobacco Research.

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Few Physicians Work in Practices That Use Telemedicine

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Only 15.4 percent of physicians work in practices that use telemedicine for a wide spectrum of patient interactions, with larger practice size being an important correlate of telemedicine use, according to a study published in the December issue of Health Affairs.

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Self-Management Program Beneficial for Patients With COPD

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A three-month intervention, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) self-management support, results in fewer COPD-related acute care events at six months after discharge, according to a study published online Nov. 12 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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HHS Issues Draft Strategy for Reducing Health IT Burden

TUESDAY, Dec. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has developed a draft strategy to reduce the health information technology (IT) burden, and the strategy is open for public comment through Jan. 28, 2019.

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Many Patients Withhold Information From Clinicians

TUESDAY, Dec. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Many patients intentionally withhold information from clinicians, according to a study published online Nov. 30 in JAMA Network Open.

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Risk Scale Predicts Short-Term Serious Outcomes in COPD

TUESDAY, Dec. 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The Ottawa chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Risk Scale (OCRS), which includes 10 criteria, has good sensitivity for short-term serious outcomes, according to a study published in the Dec. 3 issue of CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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