July 2019 Briefing - Pulmonology

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pulmonology for July 2019. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Smoking May Limit Success of Embolization Therapy for PAVMs

WEDNESDAY, July 31, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), the rates of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) persistence after pulmonary embolization are increased with active tobacco use, according to a study published online July 30 in Radiology.

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Burnout Symptoms May Up Racial Bias Among Resident Physicians

WEDNESDAY, July 31, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Symptoms of burnout seem to be associated with greater explicit and implicit racial bias among resident physicians, according to a study published online July 26 in JAMA Network Open.

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$70 Million Settlement Reached in Generic Drug Delay Case

TUESDAY, July 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Three drug companies will pay a total of nearly $70 million to California to settle charges of delaying the sale of generic drugs to keep brand-name drug prices high, the state's attorney general said Monday.

AP News Article

Legionnaires' Disease Outbreak Linked to Atlanta Hotel

TUESDAY, July 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Legionnaires' disease has been diagnosed in 11 people who stayed at the Sheraton Atlanta, and there have been another 55 probable cases, Georgia health officials say.

CNN Article
More Information: CDC

National Norms Developed for Assessing Medical School Empathy

TUESDAY, July 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- National norms have been developed for assessing empathy among men and women at different levels of medical school education, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.

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AI Model Can Predict Long-Term Mortality From Chest Radiographs

MONDAY, July 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A convolutional neural network (CNN) can predict long-term mortality from chest radiographs (CXRs), according to a study published online July 19 in JAMA Network Open.

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JUUL E-Cigarettes Never Meant for Teens, Company Cofounder Says

FRIDAY, July 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- JUUL developed its electronic cigarette for adult smokers who want to stop and never intended it to be adopted by underage teenagers, company cofounder James Monsees told a U.S. House subcommittee on Thursday, adding that "combating underage use" is the company's highest priority, the Associated Press reported.

AP News Article

Daily E-Cigarette Use May Increase Prolonged Cigarette Abstinence

FRIDAY, July 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Daily electronic-cigarette use is associated with increased odds of prolonged regular cigarette smoking abstinence, according to a study published online July 11 in Nicotine & Tobacco Research.

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Exposure to Air Pollution Tied to Raised Odds of NICU Admission

THURSDAY, July 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Acute exposure to pollutants in the week prior to delivery and day of delivery is associated with increased odds of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, according to a study published online July 12 in the Annals of Epidemiology.

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Cancer Risks Examined in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

WEDNESDAY, July 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Compared with the general population, there is an increased risk for certain cancers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Singapore, according to a study published online July 11 in the International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases.

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Cuts in Fine Particulate Matter Pollution Have Spared U.S. Lives

WEDNESDAY, July 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Recent reductions in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have resulted in lower mortality in most counties in the United States, according to a study published online July 23 in PLOS Medicine.

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CDC: Mortality Rates Continue to Decrease for Hispanic Adults

WEDNESDAY, July 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Age-adjusted death rates decreased for Hispanic adults from 2000 through 2017, while for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults, the rates have remained stable since 2011-2012, according to a July data brief published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics.

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Senate Bill Would Reduce Drug Costs for Seniors

TUESDAY, July 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A bill to reduce prescription drug costs for millions of Medicare recipients and lower federal and state health costs has been introduced by two U.S. senators.

AP News Article

Reducing Air Pollution Could Cut Rates of Childhood Asthma

TUESDAY, July 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Statistical models demonstrate how targeting certain air pollutants could reduce the incidence of childhood asthma, according to a study published online July 22 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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One in Five Workers Exposed to Secondhand Smoke on the Job

TUESDAY, July 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- One in five nonsmoking workers report exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) at work, according to research published in the July 12 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Family Support May Improve Asthma Outcomes in Poor Youth

FRIDAY, July 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Better family relationships are associated with better asthma management behaviors and outcomes for those living in neighborhoods characterized as dangerous and/or disorderly, according to a study published online July 18 in Pediatrics.

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Key Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens Reduced With Ivacaftor Use

FRIDAY, July 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), ivacaftor use is associated with a reduction in pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, according to a study published online July 19 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Financial Incentives Help People Stop Smoking

FRIDAY, July 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Financial incentives do seem to help people quit smoking, according to a study published July 17 in the Cochrane Library.

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CDC: Prevalence of Smoking Quit Attempts Unchanged in Most States

THURSDAY, July 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- During 2011 to 2017, the prevalence of quit attempts in adult smokers did not change significantly in 44 states and increased in only four states, according to research published in the July 19 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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About One in 20 Patients Exposed to Preventable Harm

THURSDAY, July 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The pooled prevalence of preventable patient harm is 6 percent across a range of medical settings globally, according to a review published online July 17 in The BMJ.

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Air Pollution Found to Accelerate Aging of the Lungs

THURSDAY, July 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Ambient air pollution is associated with lower lung function and increased chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence, according to a study published online July 8 in the European Respiratory Journal.

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Educational Handout May Increase Receipt of Child Flu Shot

TUESDAY, July 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Providing an educational handout about influenza disease in the waiting room before a pediatric provider visit may increase receipt of child influenza vaccine, according to a study published online July 8 in Pediatrics.

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Most Adults Favor Cutting Nicotine Levels in Cigarettes

TUESDAY, July 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Most adults favor requiring cigarette makers to lower the level of nicotine in cigarettes, according to a study published online July 11 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Risk for Arterial Hypertension Up With Air Pollutant Exposure

MONDAY, July 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For individuals living in multistory houses (MH), residential exposure to air pollutants is associated with an increased risk for arterial hypertension (AH), according to a study published online June 24 in the Journal of Public Health.

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CDC: Workplace Absenteeism High in 2017/2018 Flu Season

FRIDAY, July 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Workplace absenteeism during the high-severity 2017 to 2018 influenza season increased sharply in November and peaked in January, reaching a higher level than the average during the previous five seasons, according to research published in the July 5 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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State-Level Variation Noted in Economic Burden of Cancer

FRIDAY, July 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- There is considerable state-level variation in the economic burden of cancer, according to a study published online July 3 in JAMA Oncology.

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CRP-Guided Testing Cuts Antibiotic Use in COPD Exacerbations

FRIDAY, July 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), point-of-care testing of C-reactive protein (CRP) to guide antibiotic prescribing can reduce antibiotic use, according to a study published in the July 11 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Serious Misdiagnosis-Related Harms Mostly Due to 'Big Three'

FRIDAY, July 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Vascular events, infections, and cancers account for about three-quarters of serious misdiagnosis-related harms, according to a study published online July 11 in Diagnosis.

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U.S. Health, Economic Burden of Uncontrolled Asthma Projected

FRIDAY, July 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The economic burden of uncontrolled asthma is considerable and is projected to continue increasing, according to a study recently published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Capping Work Hours in Residency Does Not Impact Outcomes Later

THURSDAY, July 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure of U.S. physicians to work-hour reforms during residency training is not associated with post-training differences in patient mortality, readmissions, or costs of care, according to a study published online July 11 in The BMJ.

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Medicare Drug Rebate Plan Withdrawn by Trump Administration

THURSDAY, July 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A plan to let Medicare patients receive rebates that drug companies currently pay to insurers and middlemen has been withdrawn by the Trump administration.

AP News Article

Hospitalized Pneumonia Patients Often Get Excess Antibiotics

THURSDAY, July 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Patients hospitalized with pneumonia often receive excess antibiotic therapy, according to a study published online July 9 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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PE, Death Not Reduced With Early Vena Cava Filter Placement

THURSDAY, July 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Early prophylactic placement of a vena cava filter compared with no placement of a filter after major trauma does not result in a reduced incidence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism or death at 90 days, according to a study published online July 7 in the New England Journal of Medicine. The research was published to coincide with the annual meeting of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis, held from July 6 to 10 in Melbourne, Australia.

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Health Care Professionals Exhibit Gender Bias

THURSDAY, July 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Survey results show that health care professionals have implicit and explicit gender bias, according to a study published online July 5 in JAMA Network Open.

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CPAP Alleviates Depression Symptoms in Sleep Apnea Patients

WEDNESDAY, July 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment reduces depression symptoms in patients with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease, according to research published online June 13 in EClinicalMedicine.

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Rule Requiring Drug Prices in TV Ads Blocked by Judge

TUESDAY, July 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A Trump administration rule to force pharmaceutical companies to disclose the list prices of their drugs in television ads was blocked Monday by a federal judge.

The New York Times Article

EHR System-Generated In-Basket Messages Linked to Burnout

TUESDAY, July 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Receipt of more than the average number of electronic health record (EHR) system-generated in-basket messages is associated with an increased probability of physician burnout, according to a study published in the July 1 issue of Health Affairs.

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Simple Fixed Threshold IDs Those at Risk for COPD-Related Events

TUESDAY, July 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Use of a threshold of airflow obstruction of forced expiratory volume in one second:forced vital capacity (FEV1:FVC) of 0.70 discriminates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related hospitalization and mortality, according to a study published in the June 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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In-Hospital Maternal Mortality Down in Pregnancies With Lupus

TUESDAY, July 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- In-hospital maternal mortality decreased from 1998 to 2015 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and non-SLE pregnancies, with a greater decline for SLE pregnancies, according to a study published online July 9 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Extended Follow-Up Supports Low-Dose CT for Lung Cancer Screening

MONDAY, July 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Extended follow-up of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) showed that the number needed to screen to prevent one lung cancer death among patients at high risk for lung cancer is 303, similar to the original estimate, according to a study published online June 28 in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology.

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Image-Based Model Predicts Radiation Tx Failure in Lung Cancer

WEDNESDAY, July 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- An image-based deep learning framework can predict radiation treatment failure in lung cancer patients, according to a study published in the July issue of The Lancet Digital Health.

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Adding Clinical Variables Aids in Lung Allocation for Transplants

WEDNESDAY, July 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Adding clinical variables improves the accuracy of lung allocation score (LAS) for transplant candidates, according to a study published online June 14 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Vermont Places 92 Percent Tax on E-Cigarettes

TUESDAY, July 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A 92 percent tax on electronic cigarettes took effect in Vermont on Monday as the state tries to reduce young people's use of the devices.

CBS News Article

Many Nurses Believe in Sedation for Comfort of Ventilated Patients

TUESDAY, July 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- More than half of critical care nurses believe sedation is needed to minimize discomfort and distress among patients receiving mechanical ventilation, according to survey results published in the July issue of the American Journal of Critical Care.

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Guidance Issued for Management of Fontan Circulation

TUESDAY, July 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A scientific statement with recommendations for follow-up care in patients with Fontan circulation surviving into adulthood was published online July 1 in Circulation.

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Considerable Number of Patients Receive Surprise Hospital Charges

TUESDAY, July 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Eighteen percent of all emergency department visits and 16 percent of in-network hospital stays have at least one out-of-network charge, according to a report published June 20 by the Kaiser Family Foundation.

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Model Can Predict Lung Cancer in Patient With Visible Nodule on CT

MONDAY, July 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with visible lung nodules, a model combining clinical and radiologic factors can predict risk for incident lung cancer, according to a study published online June 27 in Cancer Prevention Research.

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